1: Superficial Back Flashcards Preview

Gross Anatomy Unit 1 > 1: Superficial Back > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1: Superficial Back Deck (59):
1

number vertebrae

33

7C 12T 5L 5S 4Co

2

parts of vertebra

body - anterior
arch - posterior, formed of right/left pedicles and lamina, the roof
vertebral formamen
7 processes

3

processes on vertebra

7. 1 spinous, 2 transverse, 4 articular

4

where are processes

lamina

5

cervical vertebra

TRANSVERSE FORAMINA: for vertebral artery (vein only in C7)

superior facets go posterior
inferior facets go anterior

C3-6 bifid; C7 long and slender

large triangle foramen

6

atlas

C1; no body; articulates with occipital condoyles, allows for flexion/extension of head at atlanto-occipital joint, no spinous process

7

axis

C2; dens projects into atlas, shake head no at atlanto-axial joint

8

thoracic vertebra

long, slender spinous process, heart shaped body, costal articulation (where ribs articulate) - transverse processes; let you bend over; superior processes go down and anterior processes go up

9

lumbar vertebrae

-massive kidney shaped body
-articulation between vertebra
-long and skinny transverse process (longisimus attaches to posterior surface)
-superior facets are directed medial with mammillary process for attachment of multifidus
-inferior facets go lateral

10

defining features of each type of vertebra

cervical: small body and transverse foramen

thoracic: long skinny spinous process; costal facets for ribs on transverse, also on body

lumbar: massive kidney shaped body, superior facets have mammillary process for multifidus (so transverse go out and then under, other guys go out)

11

mamilary process

on lumbar vertebra for multifidus, on superior facets which are directed medial

12

posterior longitudnal ligament

rigid, binds vertebra together

13

ligamentum flavum

connect laminae of adjacent vertebrae

14

disk

nucleus fibrosous tough coating; nucleus pulposus is jelly of donut

15

tough coating of disk

nucleus fibrosus

16

what protrudes when disk is ruptured

nucleus pulposus, through the nucleus fibrosous

17

curvature of spine

primary at birth = kyphosis = look over feet = thoracic and sacral

secondary when lifting head = lordosis = look to the lord = cervical and lumbar

18

primary curvature of spine

kyphosis = thoracic and sacral curve in = look to feet

19

secondary curvature of spine

lordosis = look up to llord = cervical adn lumbar curve in

20

borders of the IV foramen

vertebral body and pedicle's inferior notch and next vertebrae's superior notch and lamina of both vertebrae

21

what transmits spinal nerves from spinal cord to PNS

intervertebral foramen

22

which vertebrae spinous processes are short and go straight posterior (straight back)

lumbar

23

which vertebrae have long transverse processes

lumbar

24

which vertebrae spinous processes point inferior (down)

thoracic

25

bifid spinous processes?

cervical

26

sacrum

fused bone in pelvis of the 5 sacral vertebrae

27

superficial back muscles

trapezius, lat dorsi, levator scapulae, rhomboid major and minor

28

what originates at the superior angle of scapula

levator scapulae

29

broadly, what innervates superficial back muscles

ventral rami of cervical nerves

**these muscles begin somewhere else in body and move

30

latissimus dorsi

origin is ilia creast and thoracolumbar fascia; inserts into intertubercular groove; thoracodorsal nerve

extends, adducts, medially rotates humerus at shoulder

31

innervation of l. dorsi

thoracodorsal nerve (comes from posterior cord of brachial plexus)

32

insertion of l. dorsi

intertubercular groove

33

origin of l. dorsi

iliac crest and thoracolumbar fascia

34

fxn of l. dorsi

extend, adduct, medially rotate humerus at shoulder

35

trapezius

spinal accessory nerve; 3 fiber directions-- upper draws scapula up, middle adducts scapula, lower draws scapula down; force-couple, upper and lower both work adn rotate scapula

36

trapezius innervation

spinal accessory nerve (Cnerve XI)

37

trapezius fxn

3 fiber directions, upper draws scapula up (shrug shoulders); medial adducts scapula; lower draws down

38

trapezius insertion

lateral part of clavicle

acromion and spine of scapula

base of scapular spine

39

rhomboid major

inserts into medial border of scapula, inferior to root of spine; dorsal scapular nerve; adducts scapula and rotates it up

40

rhomboid minor

inserts into medial border of scapula at root of spine; dorsal scapular nerve; works with r.major to adduct scapula

41

rhomboid m and m insertion

minor at spine on medial border of scapula

major below

42

rhomboid m and m nerve

dorsal scapular nerve

43

rhomboid fxn

adduction of scapula

44

levator scapula

from C1-4 and inserts into medial border of scapula between superior angle and spine; dorsal scapular nerve; elevates and rotates scapula downward

45

levator scapula insertion

superior to spine of scapula on medial border of scapula

46

levator scapula nerve

dorsal scapular

47

levator scapula fxn

elevates and rotates scapula downward

48

serratus posterior superior and inferior -- nerve and fxn

ventral rami of T9-12

superior draws ribs up and inferior draws down and out - increase volume, breathing last resort muscles; also proprioception

49

which vertebra have heart shaped body

thoracic

50

circular vertebral foramen

thoracic

51

demifacets

thoracic, for rib articulation

52

long spinous process that slopes inferiorly

thoracic

53

foramen transversarum

cervical

54

short sturdy spinous process that goes posterior

lumbar

55

lumbar superior facets go ___ and inferior facets go __

superior facets go medial
inferior facets go lateral

56

mastoid process

poky temporal bone right behind ear

57

nucal lines

where skull bones come together

58

external occipital protuberance

point in middle of skull on occipital bone

59

superior nuchal line

extends from external occipital protuberance