1: Topographic Anatomy of the Brain and Spinal Cord Flashcards Preview

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1

Spinal cord enlargements: where are they, and why are they present?

Enlargements are at cervical and lumbar segments

Cervical contain nerves supplying the arms, lumbar the legs

2

Conus medullaris

The lowest tapering portion of the spinal cord

3

Filum terminale interna

The continuation of the pia mater from the end of the conus medullaris

4

Cauda equina

The lumbar and sacral nerve roots arising from the conus medullaris

5

What are the dorsolateral and ventrolateral sulci?

Small grooves on the dorsolateral and ventrolateral portions of the spinal cord

Located at the point of exit of the nerve roots

6

Briefly describe the anterior median sulcus, dorsal median sulus, and dorsal intermediate sulcus

All help divide the spinal cord into three basic divisions (dorsal, lateral, and ventral funiculi)

AMS: anterior spinal artery runs here

DMS: very small sulcus

DIS: between the DMS and dorsolateral sulcus, a sulcus only present in the upper part of the spinal cord because it separates the fibers from the legs (medial) from those of the arms (lateral)

7

Dorsal funiculus: where is it and what is it?

Between dorsal median sulcus and dorsolateral sulcus

Almost exclusively contains the dorsal columns: ascending tract that conveys vibratory sense, well-localized touch, and joint position sense

8

Lateral funiculus: where is it and (brief) what does it do?

Between dorsolateral and ventrolateral sulci

Contains contralateral corticospinal and spinothalamic tracts

Damage -> weakness

9

Ventral funiculus: where is it?

Between ventrolateral and anterior median sulci

10

Distinguish the ventral horn from the dorsal horn

Ventral horn protrudes forward, dorsal protrudes back

Ventral is motor, dorsal is sensory

11

Briefly, what is the substantia gelatinosa?

A term for the most posterior portion of the dorsal horn

12

What is this structure?

Pons

13

What is this structure?

What does it do?

What emanates from it?

What is the effect of damage to this structure?

Middle cerebellar peduncle

Large white matter tract connecting the basal pons to cerebellum

The trigeminal nerve emerges from the junction of the basal pons with the middle cerebellar peduncle.

Incoordination (cerebellum functions to coordinate skilled movements)

14

Where is the medulla?

Portion of the brainstem from the spinal cord to the pons

15

What is the midbrain?

The portion of the brainstem extending rostally form the pons

16

What is this structure?

What does it contain?

Inferior olive (inferior olivary nucleus)

Contains a motor nucleus connected to the contralateral cerebellum

17

What is the post olivary sulcus and what does it contain?

What is the preolivary sulcus and what does it contain?

Post.: groove located dorsal to the protuberance of the inferior olive; CN IX and CN X nerve filaments emerge from here

Pre.: groove located ventral to protuberance of the inferior olive; CN XII filaments emerge from here

18

What is this structure?

What does it contain?

Brief description of purpose

Medullary pyramids

Bundles of fibers from cerebral cortex extending down to spinal cord (corticospinal neurons)

Critically important for voluntary movements (especially skilled)

19

What is this structure?

What does it contain?

Pyramidal decussation (crossing of fibers)

Comprise the descending motor tract in the lateral funiculus of the cord

20

What is this structure?

What is its function?

CN VI - Abducens nerve

Lateral eye movement

21

What is this structure?

What is its function?

CN VII - Facial nerve

Movement of muscles of facial expression

22

What is this structure?

What is its function?

CN VIII - Vestibulocochlear nerve

Hearing and inner ear balance

23

What is the acoustic tubercle?

Portions of CN VIII that wrap around the inferior cerebellar peduncle

24

What is this structure?

What is its function?

CN V - Trigeminal Nerve

Facial sensations and jaw movements

25

What is this structure?
What is its function?

Cerebral peduncle (crus cerebri): prominent bands of fibers on either side of the interpeduncular fossa (peduncle means "stalk")

The primary fiber bundles that connect the cerebral cortex to the brainstem.

Allows the cortex to control the contralateral side of the body and head

26

What is this structure?

What is its function?

From where is it emanating?

CN III - Oculomotor nerve

Opening the eye, controlling many eye muscles, constricting the pupil

Found in the interpeduncular fossa: the depression in between the cerebral peduncle; contains the posterior perforated substance where branches of the basilar artery enter the midbrain

27

Name this structure.

Optic chiasm: location where the right and left optic nerves meet and form the optic tracts

28

Name this structure.

Olfactory tract

29

Name this structure.

Optic tract

30

Name this structure.

Pituitary stalk (infundibulum): part of the hypothalamus that is funnel-shaped; at the narrow part of the funnel is the stalk of the pituitary gland.