1. wk 4 Cellular adaptation to enviro stress (f) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1. wk 4 Cellular adaptation to enviro stress (f) Deck (47):
1

what are two effects on a cell during atrophy

1. decrease in size of the cell by loss of cell sub
2. decrease metabolic & fxn activity

2

during atrophy of an ORGAN there will be a decrease in either the ____ of the cell or the ____

size of the cell

or number of cells

3

____: is an adaptive response to decrease body req. for fxn of a certain cell

atrophy

4

during pathogenesis there will be a decrease in ___ & ___

cytoplasm & number of cytoplasmic organelles

5

during atrophy there is an increase in the number of _____

autophagic vacuoles

- where cytoplasmic organelles are degraded by lysosomal enzymes

6

**_______: is resistant debris accumulated in cytoplasm

lipofuscin

7

what are 5 tiss. that naturally experience phsiological atrophy

1. umbilical vessels & ductus arteriosus
2. thymus
3. ovaries, uterus, and breast
4. testicular
5. muscle mass

8

_____: occurs when a M. & bone is immobilized

disuse atrophy

9

prolonged atrophy to the bone is ____

osteoporosis

10

___ atrophy: loss of innervation

denervation atrophy

11

_____ atrophy: loss of blood supply

ischemic atrophy

12

_____: increase size of a tis or organ due to increase size of individual cells

hypertrophy

13

What is the mechanism of hypertrophy?

adaptive response to increase fxn demand of tis made up of permantent cells

14

Hypertrophy is not _____ of the cells

division

15

What are two pathological/ physiologic hypertrophy

1. increase functional demand
2. increase horm stim

16

What are three classifications of permanent cells

skeletal M
neuro
cardio

17

the uterine muscle called _______ smooth muscle grow with hormonal stim during prego

myometrial smooth M

- the endometrium can divide - therefore it undergoes hyperplasia

18

______: increase of an organ or tiss as a result of increase number of component cells

hyperplasia

19

What are the three cell types that can undergo hyperplasia

hematopoietic
epithelial
CT

- the cells can divide

20

What cell types can not under go hyperplasia

cardiac
nerve
skeletal M cells

21

What parts of the female bdy grow by hyperplasia?

breast at PUBERTY

endometrium during MENSTRATION

22

hyperplasia vs. neoplasia (3 pts)

Hyperplasia: known stim , reversible, cells look normal

neoplasia: may occur without known stim, irreversible , abnormal in malignant

23

______: replacement of one adult mature cell type by another cell type

metaplasia

24

______ mechanism is adaptive replacement of cells that are sensitive to stress by more resistant ones

metaplasia

- is reversible

25

Loss of endocrine stim is a result of decreased ___ & ___ section

decreased estrogen secretion
decreased pituitary trophic horm

(high doses of corticosteroids - cancer tx)

26

there is atrophy to the ___&___ as a release of nutritional atrophy

adipose tis & pancreas

27

c.c. there is brain atrophy in _____ condition

senil dementia

28

The ___ narrow and the ____ widen toward the frontal pole in alzheimers

gyri narrow
sulci widen

29

during pathological hypertrophy here is an increase in ___ & ____ during hypertrophy

increase amt of cytoplasm
increase number of cytoplasmic organelles

30

(3) cells that have little ability to become hyperplastic

cardiac, N & skeletal

31

during squamous metaplasia there is replacement of the normal columnar ______ epithelium of the respiratory tract with _____ epithelium in smokers

C.C. Name

normal: columnar ciliated epithelium

smokers: stratified squamous

name: squamous metaplasia

32

glandular metaplasia is the replacement of the normal _____ epithelium of the esophagus with _______ epithelium in reflux esophagitis

c.c. Name

normal: stratified squamous epithelium

reflux esophagitis: mucous secreting epithium

Name: glandular metaplasia

33

______cells: differentiate into normal appearing mature squamous epithelium that replaces columnar epithelium

reverse cells

34

c.c.____: herniation portion of the gastric fundus along the esophgus bc of a defect in the diaphragmatic CT

Paraesophageal Hernia

35

c.c._______: white squamous mucosa of the prox esophagus is contrasted with the columnar lining of the distal esophagus

Barrett esophagus

36

_______ abnormality of maturation & differentiation of epithelium

dysplasia

37

____ detect dysplasia in the cervix

pap smear

38

______ : abnormal deposition of Ca+ salts in soft tiss

pathological calcification

39

calcification occurs in the ____ of dead or dying cells

mitochondria

40

______: are calcification that occurs within the mitoch. of dead or dying cells

psammoma bodies

41

c.c._______: a doughnut shaped calcification around the mitral valve annulus

mitral annulus calcification

42

_________: deposition of Ca+ salts in normal tus where there is hypercalcemia

metastatic calcifcation

43

________: failure of development of an organ or structure within

agenesis (aplasia)

44

________: failure of the development of a lumen normally tubular structure

atresia

45

________: failure of an organ to attain its normal size

hypoplasia

46

_______: failure of normal organ differentiation or persistence of primitive embryological structures

maldifferentiation (dysgenesis)

47

________: development of mature tis in an inappropriate site

ectopia (heterotopia)