Flashcards in 10) Adolescence Deck (110)
Define a growth spurt.
Peak height velocity (fastest rate at which we are gaining height)
What is the period of highest nutritional needs during adolescence?
During growth spurts
During the growth spurt, there is an accretion of __% of the adult height and __% of weight.
How does the timing of the growth spurt vary between individuals?
There is a high variability in terms of the timing of the growth spurt
What age determines sexual maturity?
Age alone does NOT determine the stage of maturity of the adolescent
What is the best index for determining nutrient needs in an adolescent?
Caloric requirement is based on kilocalories per centimeter of height
What are the periods post-utero in which growth velocity increases?
Puberty is the ONLY period post-utero in which growth velocity increases
How does the age of puberty vary between girls and boys?
Puberty starts earlier in girls
What are the two factors that explain the fact that adult men are taller than adult women?
1) There is a longer of pre-pubertal growth in boys because the growth spurt occurs later in boys
2) Boys have a greater peak height velocity
When does menarche occur?
12 or 13 years old
The pubertal growth spurt is characterized by twice the incorporation of which nutrients into bone?
Chronological age is a (better/worse) indicator of nutritional requirement than maturational age.
Nutrient needs during adolescence are determined individually according to which three factors?
1) Intensity and extent of the pubertal growth spurt
2) Gender differences in growth and body composition changes
3) Differences among individuals in terms of the timing of the pubertal growth spurt
What are Tanner's SMRs? What are they based on?
- Sexual Maturation Ratings
- Used clinically to describe the sexual stage of development
- Based on differences in primary and secondary sexual characteristics
How is the timing of growth related to SMRs?
- The sequence at which development occurs is predictable
- The timing of growth is predictable
How are growth charts used during puberty?
- Growth charts are less accurate during puberty
- The rates and patterns of growth vary, often producing crossing of growth channels
What are the SMR stages?
Vary from SMR 1 (pre-pubertal) to SMR 5 (adult)
What are the characteristics of SMR 1?
Rapid growth, but no discernable sexual changes
How does the timing of bone mass accretion and skeletal growth vary between boys and girls?
They DIFFER between females and males due to variability in the stage at which the growth spurt occurs
When is the peak weight accumulation in females in relation to peak height velocity?
6 to 9 months PRIOR to peak height velocity
When is the peak weight accumulation in males in relation to peak height velocity?
At the same time as peak height velocity
When does lean body mass occur in females and males? What SMR stage does that correspond to?
- Females: peaks at SMR 3-4
- Males: SMR 5 (after stature gain is complete)
When does sexual maturation takes place in females in comparison to males? How does the end of sexual maturation relate to growth in females?
- Takes place earlier in females than in males
- Growth normally stops when girls finish their sexual maturation
When does menarche occur in relation to breast development?
- One year after breast development begins
- Usually occurring at the deceleration phase of growth
Menses at a later age is associated with a (shorter/longer) period of growth.
How does the end of sexual maturation relate to growth in males?
Growth can continue after sexual maturation has ended
How does the total period of growth and pre-pubertal growth vary between boys and girls?
Boys have a longer total period of growth and longer pre-pubertal growth
Which hormones are responsible for development during adolescence?
- Growth hormone
- Adrenal androgens
What is the mechanism by which the final stage of skeletal growth occurs?
When the epiphyses fuse with the main portion of the bone