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Flashcards in 10 Chapter Deck (101):
1

What is agriculture?

deliberate modification of earth's surface through cultivation of plants and rearing of animals to obtain sustenance or economic gain

2

When did agriculture originate ?

when humans domesticated plants and animals for their use

3

What does cultivate mean?

to care for

4

What is a crop?

any plant cultivated by people

5

What are the four crop hearths where agriculture originated?

Latin America Southwest Asia East Asia and sub-saharan Africa

6

What grain was introduced to the Eastern Hemisphere after AD 1500?

maize

7

Do farmers in developing countries practice subsistence or commercial agriculture?

subsistence

8

What does this define? Found in developing countries is the production of food primarily for consumption by the farmers family?

subsistence agriculture

9

what does this define? Found in developed countries is the production of food primarily for sale off the farm

commercial agriculture

10

What are the main features that distinguish commercial agriculture from subsistence agriculture?

% of farmers in the labor force, the use of machinery and farm size.

11

Agriculture was invented in multiple hearths beginning when?

10,000 years ago

12

What does this define? The amount of food that an individual consumes

Dietary consumption of food

13

What is cereal grain or cereal?

a grass that yields grain for food.

14

What is grain?

the seed from a cereal grass

15

What are the three leading cereal grains?

wheat rice and maize 90% of all grain production

16

True or false
The most important grain crop grown in the United States is wheat.

true

17

Which of these crops are not cereal grains?
sorghum
barley
oats
rye

Sorghum

18

In developed countries what is the leading source of protein?

Meat products beef pork poultry

19

What is the leading source of protein in developing countries ?

cereal grains

20

How does the UN define food security?

as physical social and economic access at all times to safe and nutritious food sufficient to meet dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.

21

How many kcal per day should an individual have?

1800

22

What does undernourishment mean?

dietary energy consumption that is continuously below the minimum requirement for maintaining a healthy life and carrying out light physical activity. (Africa and Asia)

23

People in developed countries consume more total calories and a higher percentage through what?

animal products

24

the 5 agricultural regions that predominate in developing countries are?

pastoral nomadism shifting cultivation intensive subsistence wet rice dominant and intensive subsistence crops other than rice dominant and plantation

25

6 agricultural regions that predominate in developed countries are

mixed crop and livestock, dairying, grain ranching mediterranean and commercial gardening.

26

Transhumance is
pastoral nomads moving based on the seasons.
seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pasture areas.
shifting cultivation using the only form of cheap fertilizer available in LDCs.
all of the above

seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pasture areas

27

What is transhumance?

seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pasture areas

28

What is a pasture?

is grass or other plants grown for feeding grazing animals as well as land used for grazing

29

What does pastoral nomadism mean?

a form of subsistence agriculture based on the herding of domesticated animals. (pastoral refers to sheep herding)

30

Where do pastoral nomads live >?

arid and semiarid land central and southwest asia and north africa
Masi the bedouins of saudi arabia and north Africa are nomadic groups

31

pastoral nomads depend on what in contrast to subsistent farmers?

animals rather than crops ; however likewise with the farmer grains

32

Women and children of a nomadic group may plant crops at a fixed place.
True
False

true

33

Which of these characteristics do not belong to pastoral nomadism?
Size of the herd is not important.
Pastoral nomads generally eat no meat.
Animals provide milk, as well as clothing and tents, through their skins.
Pastoral nomads depend primarily on animals rather than crops for survival.

Size of the herd is not important

34

Why is pastoral nomadism in decline?
modern technology
government boundaries
land coming under restrictive private boundaries and used for other purposes
all of the above

all of the above

35

What is shifting cultivation?

the practice in much of the worlds tropical or a climate regions. Farmers clear land for planting I slashing vegetation and burning debris/and burn agriculture also farmers grow crops on a cleared field for only a few years until a soil nutrients is depleted and then leave it follow with nothing planted for years so so you can recover

36

Two distinctive features of shifting cultivation are?

farmers clear land for planting by slashing vegetation and burning the debris (Slash and Burn agriculture)
farmers grow crops on a cleared field for only a few years until soil nutrients are depleted and then leave it fallow with nothing planted to recover

37

Swidden means>?

a patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning

38

A newly cleared area for shifting cultivation is known as a swidden
True False

true

39

Shifting cultivation is considered as what type of agriculture?

intensive subsistence.

40

the form of subsistence agriculture that feeds most of developing countries, is ?

intensive subsistence agriculture; the principal purpose is production of food for consumption by the farmers family

41

The term wet rice means?

refers to rice planted on dry land in a nursery and then moved as seedling to a flooded field to promote growth
;grown in flat land because the plants are submerged in water much of the time.

42

What is sawah?

the flooded field in the cultivation of wet rice in the Austronesian language spoken in indonesia

43

Most wet rice cultivation is located in river valleys and deltas.
True False

true

44

What is double cropping ?

obtaining two harvests per year from one field

45

Much of the interior lands of India and China are devoted to crops other than wet rice.
True
False

true

46

the practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year to avoid exhausting the soil

what is crop rotation

47

A form of commercial agriculture found in developing countries; a large commercial farm in a developing country that specializes in one or two crops

A plantation
producing crops like sugarcane cotton rubber tobacco coffee

48

commercial farming consist of 6 main types

mixed crops and livestock farming, dairy farming, commercial gardening and fruit farming, grain farming mediterranean agriculture and livestock ranching

49

the system of commercial farming found in developed countries has been called?

agribusiness

50

the type of agriculture practiced in the region of phili washington and new york and assessable to large markets is

truck farming

51

Where is the U.S. Corn Belt centered?
Kansas
South Dakota
Nebraska
Iowa

Iowa

52

What is the dominant type of commercial agriculture practiced on farms near the large urban areas of the Northeast United States?
dairy farming
mixed crop and livestock farming
commercial gardening and fruit farming
livestock ranching

dairy farming

53

After corn, what is the most important crop in the U.S. mixed commercial farming region?

soybeans

54

What is a milkshed?

the ring surrounding a city from which milk can be supplied without spoiling

55

the winter wheat belt goes though which states?

Kansas colorado and oklahoma

56

the spring wheat belt does through the

dakotas montana and southern saskatchewan in canada

57

the crop is planted in the autumn and develops a strong root system before growth stops for the winter

winter wheat

58

the growing of fruits vegetables and flowers and tree crops from the commercial base of Mediterranean farming

Horticulture

59

the commercial grazing of livestock over an extensive area

ranching

60

What was the farmer's most potent weapon in fighting cattle ranchers during the "range wars?"

barbed wire

61

Which of these characteristics do not belong to shifting cultivation?

no well-recognized land boundaries under village control

62

Why is double cropping not common in India?

dry winters

63

shifting cultivation is considered as what type of agriculture?

intensive subsistence.

64

The crops of sugarcane and cotton are usually grown on:

plantations.

65

true or false Clarence Glacken argues that the earliest form of plant cultivation was vegetative planting--the reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants.

false

66

true or false Carl Sauer argued that seed agriculture came later (after vegetative planting), and is the reproduction of plants through annual planting of seeds.

true

67

true or false prime agricultural farmland in the United States is in danger of being lost to urban sprawl.

true

68

A newly cleared area for shifting cultivation is known as a swidden. t or f

true

69

t or f Women and children of a nomadic group may plant crops at a fixed place.

true

70

true or false Most farmers in LDCs practice intensive subsistence agriculture.

true

71

true or false Ranching is the commercial grazing of livestock over an extensive area.

true

72

Double cropping means producing two harvests per year from one field. t or f

t

73

t or f Much of the interior lands of India and China are devoted to crops other than wet rice.

true

74

Crop rotation is the practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year

true

75

t or f Even though the government of China owns all the farmland, the villagers can sign contracts to farm portions of the land as a private individual.

true

76

Grain farming is the most common form of commercial agriculture in the United States. true or false

False

77

The most distinctive characteristic of mixed crop and livestock farming is that most of the crops are fed to animals rather than consumed directly by humans.
true or false

true

78

true or false
A two-field crop rotation system was developed in Northern Europe around the fifth century A.D.

true

79

true or false Spain, Portugal, and France are the only European countries with a tradition of cattle ranching.

false

80

the Chisholm Trail, which began near El Paso at the Mexican border, extended northward through Texas, to Colorado and Nebraska. true or false

false

81

Growth in ranching in South America was stimulated because more cattle could graze on a given area of land in the pampas of Argentina, Uruguay, and southern Brazil, than in the U.S. West. true or false

true

82

t or f Mediterranean agriculture is practiced only in the lands that border the Mediterranean Sea.

false

83

t or f Horticulture forms the basis for commercial farming in the Mediterranean areas.

true

84

true or false truck farming refers to raising commercial gardening and fruit crops.

true

85

According to the Boserup thesis, subsistence farmers increase the supply of food through intensification of production, achieved by leaving land fallow for shorter periods. true or false

true

86

The cultivation of plants by cutting stems and dividing roots is

Selected Answer:
Correct vegetative planting

87

The most important distinction for dividing the world into agricultural regions is
whether the product is consumed on or off of the farm
whether crops are grown or animals are raised
the location of the first agriculture
the population density of the crop-producing region

whether the product is consumed on or off of the farm

88

Seed agriculture probably reached Europe by way of
western India
northern China
Ethiopia
Southwest Asia

Southwest Asia

89


Which is not a form of subsistence agriculture?
Mediterranean
shifting cultivation
pastoral nomadism
all of the above

Selected Answer:
Correct Mediterranean

90

The largest number of farmers in Asia practice

Correct intensive subsistence

91

The most important reason why most people in North China grow crops other than wet rice
is

climate

92

to increase crop yields, farmers in southeastern China commonly practice
double cropping
transhumance
threshing
pastoral nomadism

double cropping

93

Von Thunen's model can best be used to explain the location of which of the following types
of agriculture?

dairying in the Northeast United States

94


More than 40% of the people in the world are farmers.
Selected Answer:
True
False

true

95


Most of the wheat grown in the American grain region is consumed by animals.


Correct False

96

subsistence agriculture is designed mainly to generate products for sale off the farm. t or f

false

97

True or False
Most mixed crop and livestock farms in the United States are owned by large corporations
rather than individual families.

false

98


Which type of subsistence agriculture occupies the largest percentage of the world's land area?

shifting cultivation

99


What is the distinctive type of agriculture practiced in the population concentrations of East
and South Asia? __________

wet rice or intensive subsistence

100


In shifting cultivation, how do farmers clear their fields for planting? __________

slash and burn

101


Prior to the invention of agriculture, how did most people obtain their food? __________

hunting and gathering