Flashcards in 10: Empathy and communication Deck (22):
What does Einfuhlung mena?
Feeling one's way into the experience of another
What did Lipps say were characteristics of empath?
- important for interpersonal roles
What explanation is there for why empathy is involuntary?
1. Inner imitation of others
What evidence is there other animals also display empathy?
1. Rats stopping an action if it comes at the cost of another
2. if a rat was dangling showing distress and another could do something about it, they would help
What evidence is there we humans display empathy?
1. infants show concern + attention to others in distress
2. Similar pain activation when females xp pain themselves + observed partner
What explanation is there for why we feel empathy?
- allows sharing of affect
= gives caregivers a better signal to care for
= natural motivation to act
What are mirror neurons?
Same brain area activated when you see or do same thing
- sensory motor simulation
- allows affect transfer?
What evidence is there synchrony/ mirroring is related to helpfulness (pro-social behaviour)?
1. babies bounced in synchrony vs asynchrony
2. Asked to help pick up something
= synchrony group = more helpful
- shared emotions
What is the difference between affective empathy and cognitive empathy?
- directly affected by the emotional state of another
- by matching feelings
- observer imagines how target feels
- even if target not present
- or their feelings cannot be directly seen
What evidence is there supporting the differnt types of empathy?
1. Show images of people in pain
2. Asked them to imagine the pain happening on them
= higher activity when imagining = cognitive
3. If told pain part of the process
= less emotional arousal
Why is it important we are able to attenuate/ inhibit sympathy?
- individuals experience a similar sensation in the same part of the body (such as touch) that another person feels
= sometimes can be overwhelming and remove our needed attention
= cognition can attenuate the empathic response
What are the benefits of being able to show empathy in patient-doctor relationship?
1. better xp for patient
- just body language can make a difference!
- feel more listen to + think doctor is more competent
2. Better able to empathise with patient
When doctors who had claims of malpractice vs no malpractice claims were compared, what was found about their communication style?
no malpractice claims
= more humour
= asked for patients opinion
= checked for patient understanding + talking
= LESS time in consultation = more effective
What does empathy result in which as a result results in better compliance to medical advice according to Ley's Model?
What are the features of effective of communication?
1. Sharing of info
2. Patient's perspective + opinions consulted
3. Shared understanding + agreement
What evidence is there showing patient's prefer shared decision-making?
1. Lee et al
- higher preference of shared decision making
- with women with early stage of breast cancer + stem cell transplant
What is the Toronto Consensus Statement?
- a group who do real evaluation of what is happening in medical practices
= patients dissatisfied with doctors communication vs when doctor think they are doing good
- 21% vs 75%
What % of patients concern are not elicited by physicians?
Psychiatric diagnosis are missed in up to how many %?
50% of cases
In on study patients were interrupted by physicians after how many seconds of describing their presenting problem?
What reasons are there for why communication between patient and doctors are really like?
1. no involved communication = not sharing everything + bad experience
2. Medical jargon
- effects memory of xp which effect satisfaction
- effects young + old