10 minute topic Cardiovascular diagnostics and Procedures Flashcards Preview

Nursing 281 > 10 minute topic Cardiovascular diagnostics and Procedures > Flashcards

Flashcards in 10 minute topic Cardiovascular diagnostics and Procedures Deck (33):
1

When are Cardiac enzymes released?

hen the heart muscle suffers ischemia
the heart isn’t getting enough oxygen

2

When is a lipid profile used

detects cholesterol levels and is used for early detection of heart disease

3

Indications for running cardiac enzyme or lipid tests

Angina
MI – s/s of MI
Heart disease – a patient with known heart disease and comes in with other s/s
Hyperlipidemia

4

CK-MB range

30-170 but really should be 0

5

CK-MB time of elevation

elevates within 4-6 hours of myocardial injury
stays elevated for 3 days

6

Troponin T range

<0.2ng/L

7

Troponin T time of elevation

elevates within 3 hours of MI
stays elevated for 2-3 weeks

8

Troponin I range

0.03 ng/L

9

Troponin I time of elevation

elevates within 3 hours of MI
Stays elevated for 10 days

10

Myoglobin range

<90mcg/L

11

Myoglobin time of elevation

elevates within 2 hours of MI
Only stays elevated for 24 hours

12

HDL ranges

35-65mg/dl for men
35-80 mg/dl for women

13

LDL cholesterol levels

<130-180 mg/dl

14

Triglycerides

should be <150
used to evaluate for atherosclerosis

15

Echocardiogram

ultrasound of the heart used to dx valve disorders
looking at the actual structure of the heart

16

Candidates for an ECG

cardiomyopathy
HF
angina
MI

17

Pharmalogical stress test

Adenosine is given if PT is unable to walk on treadmill

18

Stress test candidates

Angina
heart failure
MI
dysrhythmias

19

Cardiac Angiography (AKA cardiac catheterization)

invasive diagnostic procedure to evaluate the presence and degree of coronary artery blockage

20

Cardiac Angiography (AKA cardiac catheterization) procedure

occlusions are seen by injecting contrast media under fluoroscopy

21

Cardiac Angiography (AKA cardiac catheterization) indications

unstable angina w/ ECG changes
to determine extent and location of known heart disease

22

Cardiac Angiography (AKA cardiac catheterization) pre-procedure

NPO for 8 hours due to aspiration risk
Check BUN and creatanine because the dye is excreted through the kidneys
check for shellfish or iodine allergy

23

Cardiac Angiography (AKA cardiac catheterization) intra procedure

client is awake
local anesthetic
client will feel warm flushing
pressure to be placed on incision to prevent bleeding

24

Cardiac Angiography (AKA cardiac catheterization) post procedure

monitor pedal pulses
we are on the arterial side so a clot would go toward to feet
Supine position
Continuous cardiac monitoring

25

Cardiac Angiography (AKA cardiac catheterization) patient teaching

avoid strenuous activity for 4-6 days
Report bleeding, SOB, changes to extremity
have regular labs if on coumadin

26

Cardiac Angiography (AKA cardiac catheterization) complications

cardiac tamponade
Hematoma
Re-stenosis of treated vessel
retroperitoneal bleeding

27

cardiac tamponade

fluid accumulation in the pericardial sac
This is a cardiac emergency and they will do a pericardiocentesis
Give IV fluids to combat hypotension

28

cardiac tamponade s/sx

include hypotension, jugular venous distention, heart sounds will be muffled, paradoxical pulse and BP change of inhalation and exhalation

29

Re-stenosis of treated vessel

Clot reformation
Can occur immediately or several weeks after procedure
Pattern changes in the ECG and possible chest pain
Notify the MD
They will go back to the cath lab

30

retroperitoneal bleeding

Bleeding into retroperitoneal space (abdominal cavity behind the peritoneum)

31

Cause of retroperitoneal bleeding

femoral artery puncture

32

Retroperitoneal bleeding sx

Flank pain
hypotension

33

Retroperitoneal bleeding tx

give IV fluids and blood
Notify MD
Surgical repair required
this is an emergency