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1

structural classification of joints

presence/absence of synovial cavity
type of connective tissue
fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial

2

functional classification of joints

based on degree of movement permitted
synarthrosis (immovable), amphiarthrosis (partially moveable), diarthrosis (freely moveable)

3

fibrous joints

no synovial cavity
held by fibrous connective tissue
permits little/no movement
3 types
suture, syndesmosis, interosseous membrane

4

fibrous joints: suture

unit skull bones
thin layer of dense connective tissue
irregular
interlocking edges provide strength
no movement permitted (synarthrosis)
ossification of suture forms a syntosis

5

fibrous joints: syndesmosis

more connective tissue than seen in suture
crosses greater distance than in suture
connective tissue typically arranged into bundles (ligament)
typically permit slight movement (amphiarthrosis)
eg. tibia and fibula - anterior tibiofibular ligament

6

fibrous joints: interosseus membranes

sheet of dense connective tissue
binds adjacent long bones
amphiarthrosis two main examples = between radius and ulna, and between tibia and fibula

7

cartilaginous joints

no synovial cavity
held together by fibrocartilage or hyaline cartilage
permits little/no movement
2 types
synchondrosis, symphysis

8

cartilaginous joints: synchondrosis

connective tissue = hyaline cartilage
synarthrosis
eg. epiphyseal plate (growth plate)
at skeletal maturity, epiphysis, metaphysis and epiphyseal plate fuse
forms synostosis

9

cartilaginous joints: symphysis

connective tissue = fibrocartilage
adjacent bones lined with hyaline cartilage
broad rise of fibrocartilage connects bones
amphiarthrosis
all occur in midline of body: manubrium and sternum, intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis

10

synovial joint structure: articular cartilage

covers bone at synovial joints
avascular
composed of collagen and proteoglycan
orientation of collagen imparts resistance to compression + low resistance

11

synovial joint structure: articular capsule

encapsulates synovial joint
2 layers
outer fibrous layer
- connects to periosteum
- flexible, permits movement
- fibres arranged into bundles, high tensile strength
inner synovial membrane
- areolar connective tissue rich inelastic fibres
- occasionally contains articular pads

12

synovial joint structure: synovial fluid

secreted by synovial membrane
rich in hyaluronic acid
lubricates articular surface, reduces friction
some shock absorption
supplies nutrition to and removes waste products
phagocytes remove microbes and debris

13

synovial joint structure: accessory ligaments

intracapsular - within joint capsule
- excluded from synovial fluid by folds in synovial membrane
eg. anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments of knee
extracapsular ligaments - outside joint capsule
e.g. fibular and tibial collateral ligaments

14

synovial joint structure: accessory articular discs

fibrocartilage pads in-between articular cartilage of some synovial joints, eg meniscus of knee
meniscii/articular discs
help maintain joint stability
direct flow of synovial fluid
meniscal tears = common in athletes

15

synovial joint structure: nerve and blood supply

nerve endings = same as those that supply muscles
distributed to articular capsule and associated ligaments
pain and proprioception
rely on numerous branching of arteries and veins to supply tissue (many are avascular)

16

synovial joint structure: bursae and tendon sheaths

moving parts of joints case friction
bursae = fluid filled sacs lined with synovial-like membrane - cushion movement between body parts
tendon sheaths are similar
= specialised membranes that wrap around tendons, esp where tendons come together/pass through synovial joint capsule

17

types of synovial joint movement

planar
hinge
pivot
condyloid
saddle
ball and socket

18

planar synovial joint

surfaces are flat/slightly curves
permits back and forth, side to side movements
eg. intercarpal joints, intertarsal joints

19

hinge synovial joint

concave surface of one/both bones fits into convex surface of another
permits motion in single axis (flexion/extension)
eg. knee, elbow

20

pivot synovial joint

rounded/pointed surface of one bone pivots in ring formed by another bone and ligament
permits rotation in longitudinal axis (monoaxial)
eg. radioulnar joint
atalanto-axial joint (spine)

21

condyloid synovial joint

convex oval projection of one bone fits into oval projection of another
permits movement around 2 axes, (flexion/extension, abduction/adduction)
eg. wrist, metacarpophalangeal joints

22

saddle synovial joint

one bone fits int saddle-shaped bone it opposes
modified condyloid joint
permits movement in 2 axes (flexion/extension, abduction/adduction) + sometimes limited rotation
eg. carpometacarpal joint (thumb)

23

ball and socket synovial joint

ball-like surface of one bone fits into cup-like depression of another
triaxial movement around 3 planes (flexion/extension, abduction/adduction, rotation)
eg. shoulder, hip

24

shoulder articulation

glenohumeral
sternoclavicular
acromioclavicular

25

glenohumeral joint

synovial balla nd socket joint
between proximal humerus and glenoid fossa of scapula
most mobile joint in the body (due to shallowness of glenoid cavity
glenoid labrum = narrow rim of fibrocartilage deepening fossa
stabilised by 3 ligaments
4 associated bursae

26

glenoid labrum

narrow rim of fibrocartilage
deepens glenoid

27

glenohumeral stabilising ligaments

glenohumeral
coracohumeral
transverse humeral

28

glenohumeral joint and rotator cuff muscles

most strength in joint comes from rotator cuff muscles
join scapula and humerus
encircle joint and fuse with joint capsule

29

acromioclavicular joint

technically synovial gliding joint (planar) - acts like pivot
between acromion and clavicle
stabilised by 3 ligaments
allows movement of scapula, allowing greater arm rotation

30

acromioclavicular stabilising ligaments

acromioclavicular
coracoacromial
coracoclavicular