Flashcards in 10. The Seven Years War and War of Conquest Deck (18):
The war of conquest (1754-1760)
The war of conquest was the final battle of the French in New France. Sparked by clashes in the Ohio Valley, the war of conquest led to the capture of Louisbourg, deportation of the Acadians, siege of Quebec city, battle of the Plains of Abraham, battle of St. Foy (town outside Quebec City) and change of empire.
Clashes in the Ohio Valley
In 1754 and 1756, conflict broke out when the British attacked a disputed French position in the Ohio Valley. The British wanted to kill the French before they built on the land. In 1754, a group of milita men led by George Washington was sent to the Ohio Valley to get into the conflict. A group of about 30 French soldiers lead by Jumonville went on a scouting mission to the Ohio region to verify that the British landed. Washington’s troops attacked the French by surprise and Jumonville was killed in the battle.
Vengeance for Jumonville
Jumonville’s brother, Louis Coulon wanted revenge, so on July 3rd 1754, he attacked Washington at Fort Necessity and took over the British fort to make the British regret what they did. These events sparked the war of conquest.
History of Acadia
Part of Acadia was surrendered to the British. The British and Acadians were supposed to be in peace. With the founding of Port Royal in 1604, the Acadians established their own unique culture and population in Acadia (Maritime Canada), since they were ignored by France. In 1730, the British authorities made the Acadians swear to peace.
Later in Acadia
Over the next twenty years, there was more tension between the British and Acadians. Forts were built on either side. The French built Louisbourg and Fort Beausejour (small military and agricultural establishment). The English built a huge naval base in Halifax called Fort Lawrence, a few yards away from Beausejour.
Reaction to the forts
British Governor Charles Lawrence saw the port as a threat and captured Beausejour. Charles Lawrence discovered the presence of 270 militia men training to attack Fort Lawrence. Once again Lawrence made the Acadians swear to be loyal to each other, but they refused. Lawrence fought back by imprisoning Acadian officials and rounding up Acadians by military force. Their houses were pillaged, their crops were burnt and they were deported.
The deportation of the Acadians (1755)
The British decided to deport the Acadians which was called the Great Upheaval or Great Deportation. Many Acadians were deported to British colonies (Mississippi, Caribbean, France) and were poorly received. Some escaped this by leaving Acadia before this event happened.
Reasons for deporting the Acadians
1. The British worried that the Acadians would participate in military operations on the side of the French.
2. To free up fertile land for British colonists in Nova Scotia.
Seven years war (1756-1763)
It effected European and North American territories. All military superpowers and their colonies participated in this conflict. The outcomes were widespread and effected land exchanges in 1763.
Beginning of the Seven Years War
In Europe, the mother countries were occupied with sending resources to colonies to hold their claims to land. Tensions in Europe escalated over Austria’s desire to recover Silesia (territory over Czech, German and Poland territories). Europe was divided into 2 coalitions; The Kingdom of Britain and her allies (Prussia, Portugal and Hanover) and the Kingdom of France and her allies (Holy Roman Empire, Russian Empire, Bourbon Empire)
Balance of Power
France and Britain focused on different objectives; France saw to expand territory in Europe to increase its power. Britain saw to expand their colonial territories in North America. The British placed significant resources in North America in order to win the War or Conquest and take hold on North America.
The Capture of Louisbourg (1758)
In the first confrontations in the North American battle ground of the war favoured the French. In 1758, the British stormed the fortress of Louisbourg with a fighting force. This forced the capture of Louisbourg. From the point on the British controlled the St Lawrence river and took control of fishing activities in the area which was bad because they can get to Quebec City and Montreal
The siege of Quebec City (1759)
The British fleet had gradually advanced down the St Lawrence Valley, towards Quebec City. British General James Wolfe laid siege on the city with a force of 39,000 men. The French lined along the Northern Shores of Montmorency and along the coastline of Quebec. Quebec City was heavily bombarded, but the defences along the north shore slowed down the British advance.
The Battle Plains of Abraham (1759)
British troops led by General Wolfe, landed at L’Anse au Foulon behind Quebec City and climbed the cliff during the night which Quebec City was built upon.
The Assault on Quebec
The morning after, General Montcalm of France decided to attack the British. Montcalm and Wolfe both died in this small attack. The British won and Quebec was captured. British troops took possession of the city.
Aftermath of the plains of Abraham
The French retreated to Montreal, those who stayed in Quebec City were subject to the British military force that controlled the territory. In Montreal, the French groups prepared to attack back.
Battle of Saint-Foy (1760)
The French attempted to recapture Quebec. Under the command of Levis, 7000 French troops went to Quebec. British commander Murray met Levis in the town of Saint-Foy outside Quebec City. Murray only brought 4000 soldiers and lost. British troops went back to Quebec City and the French laid siege to Quebec.