What respiratory adaptation happens at birth?
- fluid resorbed by type 1 pneumocytes
- through stimulation from catecholamines and prostaglandins
What causes the ductus arteriosus to constrict during the 1st few minutes of life?
- O2 in the blood from ventilation
What is the effect of the first breath after birth on pulmonary vascular resistance?
What does the increase in pulmonary venous return and increase in atrial pressure cause in infants just after birth?
- closure of foramen ovale
- septum primum presses against septum secondum
What are the symptoms of respiratory distress in the newborn?
- chest wall recession
- nasal flaring
- expiratory grunting
Where in the newborn is brown fat found?
- lower posterior neck
- supraclavicular region
What is brown fat rich in and what is the significance of this?
- FFA oxidation by mitochondria --> heat
What 3 things can result from babies getting cold?
- respiratory distress
- surfactant deactivation
Where is glycogen found in neonates?
(unlike any other time of life)
What are the 3 metabolic adaptations of a baby at birth?
- decrease in plasma concentration of insulin
- increase in catecholamines
- increase in pancreatic glucagon release
What is acrocyanosis?
Dusky blue appearance of peripheries
Why is vitamin K given at birth?
- helps with clotting
- some babies are born with Vit K deficiency
- danger of bleeding
What does the low activity of glucuroninsultransferase cause in the first few days of life?
What is the normal HR of a newborn?
What is the normal BP of a newborn?
What is the average hea circumference of a newborn?
What is the average weight of a newborn?
Which 2 hormones are essential for growth?
Which hormones are stimulated by the ovaries and testes?
What percentage of growth happens in the foetal phase?
What percentage of growth happens in the infantile phase?
What percentage of growth happens in the childhood phase?
What percentage of growth happens in the pubertal phase?
Which 2 things are important for the foetal stage of growth?
- maternal nutrition
Which 2 hormones are important in childhood?
When are androgens secreted?
- 6-8 years
- promote axillary and pubic hair growth
When and where is there an increase in the release of GTRH?
Nocturnally secreted from the hypothalamus- gonadarche
- Which hormones are released from the pituitary upon secretion of GTRH from the hypothalamus?
- Which hormones are stimulated from the ovaries/testes following this?
- FSH and LH from the pituitary --> increased development of the ovaries/testes
- increased secretion of oestriol/testosterone from ovaries/testes
Why do girls stop growing before boys?
Oestrogen is the main cause of termintation of growth
Which gene is defective in achondroplasia?
Which hormone is increased in hypothyroidism?
What is the consequence of GH insufficiency in childhood?
Faltering growth and short stature due to lack of proliferation of the chondrocytes at the epiphyseal plates
Name 4 conditions which cause tall stature
- precocious puberty
What is marasmus?
Stunted growth caused by chronic malnutrition
What is kwashiorkor?
Starvation and oedema due to low albumin and hepatomegaly
Which protein is in abundence in colostrum?
Which protein in milk can become allergenic?
What are the proportions of whey and casein in mature milk? (in %)
What is the main carbohydrate in mature milk?
What should the weight gain of an infant be (per week) in the first 3 months post partum?
200g per week
What should the weight gain be per week in an infant of 4-6 months?
How much milk should an infant 0-4 months have daily?
How much milk should an infant 4-6months have daily?