108 Normal Child and 121 Growth faltering Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 108 Normal Child and 121 Growth faltering Deck (43):
1

What respiratory adaptation happens at birth?

  • fluid resorbed by type 1 pneumocytes 
  • through stimulation from catecholamines and prostaglandins

 

2

What causes the ductus arteriosus to constrict during the 1st few minutes of life?

  • O2 in the blood from ventilation

3

What is the effect of the first breath after birth on pulmonary vascular resistance?

Reduces it

4

What does the increase in pulmonary venous return and increase in atrial pressure cause in infants just after birth?

  • closure of foramen ovale
  • septum primum presses against septum secondum

5

What are the symptoms of respiratory distress in the newborn?

(6 listed)

  • tachypnoea
  • tachycardia
  • chest wall recession
  • nasal flaring
  • expiratory grunting
  • cyanosis

 

6

Where in the newborn is brown fat found?

  • lower posterior neck 
  • supraclavicular region

 

7

What is brown fat rich in and what is the significance of this?

  • triglycerides
  • FFA oxidation by mitochondria --> heat

 

8

What 3 things can result from babies getting cold?

  • hypogycaemia
  • respiratory distress
  • surfactant deactivation

9

Where is glycogen found in neonates?

(unlike any other time of life)

Heart

10

What are the 3 metabolic adaptations of a baby at birth?

  • decrease in plasma concentration of insulin
  • increase in catecholamines
  • increase in pancreatic glucagon release

 

11

What is acrocyanosis?

Dusky blue appearance of peripheries

 

 

12

Why is vitamin K given at birth?

  • helps with clotting
  • some babies are born with Vit K deficiency
  • danger of bleeding

 

13

What does the low activity of glucuroninsultransferase cause in the first few days of life?

Physiological jaundice

 

14

What is the normal HR of a newborn?

110-150 bpm

15

What is the normal BP of a newborn?

65/40 mmHg

16

What is the average hea circumference of a newborn?

35cm

17

What is the average weight of a newborn?

3.5kg

18

Which 2 hormones are essential for growth?

  • GH
  • TH

 

19

Which hormones are stimulated by the ovaries and testes?

  • FSH
  • LH

 

20

What percentage of growth happens in the foetal phase?

30%

21

What percentage of growth happens in the infantile phase?

15%

22

What percentage of growth happens in the childhood phase?

40%

23

What percentage of growth happens in the pubertal phase?

15%

 

24

Which 2 things are important for the foetal stage of growth?

  • maternal nutrition
  • placenta

 

25

Which 2 hormones are important in childhood?

  • GH
  • TH

 

26

When are androgens secreted? 

 

  • 6-8 years 
  • promote axillary and pubic hair growth

 

27

When and where is there an increase in the release of GTRH?

Nocturnally secreted from the hypothalamus- gonadarche

28

  • Which hormones are released from the pituitary upon secretion of GTRH from the hypothalamus?
  • Which hormones are stimulated from the ovaries/testes following this?

 

  • FSH and LH from the pituitary --> increased development of the ovaries/testes
  • increased secretion of oestriol/testosterone from ovaries/testes

 

29

Why do girls stop growing before boys?

Oestrogen is the main cause of termintation of growth

30

Which gene is defective in achondroplasia?

FGFR-3\

31

Which hormone is increased in hypothyroidism?

TSH

32

What is the consequence of GH insufficiency in childhood?

Faltering growth and short stature due to lack of proliferation of the chondrocytes at the epiphyseal plates

33

Name 4 conditions which cause tall stature

(4 listed)

  • hyperthyroidism
  • precocious puberty
  • Marfans
  • Kliinefelters

 

34

What is marasmus?

Stunted growth caused by chronic malnutrition

35

What is kwashiorkor?

Starvation and oedema due to low albumin and hepatomegaly

36

Which protein is in abundence in colostrum?

  • whey
  • casein

 

Whey (80%)

37

Which protein in milk can become allergenic?

Casein

38

What are the proportions of whey and casein in mature milk? (in %)

60% whey

40% casein

39

What is the main carbohydrate in mature milk?

lactose

40

What should the weight gain of an infant be (per week) in the first 3 months post partum?

200g per week

41

What should the weight gain be per week in an infant of  4-6 months? 

150g/week

42

How much milk should an infant 0-4 months have daily?

150-200ml/kg

43

How much milk should an infant 4-6months have daily?

140ml/kg