What signs are seen in a newborn with respiratory distress?
- Retraction or recession of the intercostal spaces
- Flaring of the ala nasae
- Central cyanosis
- Expiratory grunting
What is the name of the 16 cell stage of development?
Which cell in the lung is responsible for absorbing most of the fluid that is present in the lungs at birth?
Type 1 pneumocytes
Which hormone in males stimulates spermatogenesis?
What is vernix?
It is dead tissue with lipids that is used as a thermoregulatory mechanism
What is erythema toxicum?
- A benign and transient rash, with white centres
- Rash may be pustular
- Begins 24hrs-2 weeks post birth
How long after birth does the ductus arteriosus take to close?
Within a couple of hours
What causes the foramen ovale to close?
An increase of blood return from the pulmonary circulation causes the pressure in the left atrium to increase.
The pressure is greater in the left atrium in comparison to the right so the blood tries to flow through the foramen ovale.
This flow of blood causes the flap to close and seal.
Where in the body is brown adipose tissue found?
- The lower neck
- Supraclavicular regions
What are the timings of the foetal period?
From the 9th week until birth
What the effects of Growth hormone in the body?
- Inhibits carbohydrate and fat formation so stores must be utilised
- Promotes protein synthesis
- Helps chondrocytes at the epiphyseal plate to proliferate and thus produce elongation of the bone
What is the valve of the vena cava called that helps divert oxygenated blood from the placenta towards the brain?
The Eustachian valve or valve of the inferior vena cava
What causes the pulmonary arterioles to dilate after birth, therefore lowering vascular resistance and diverting blood through the lungs?
The presence of O2, which is absorbed by the pulmonary capillaries and dilates the pulmonary arterioles.
How long after birth do the respiratory adaptations take?
Usually happen within 1 second after birth
Where is glucogen stored in the baby during pregnancy?
- Bone marrow
- Cardiac muscle (only time it is found here)
Why is it typical to see anaemia in babies at around 5-8 weeks old?
They have greater oxygen saturation after birth due to lung oxygenation.
This causes a negative feedback on the production of erythropoietin from the kidney.
This means RBCs are no longer produced, producing anaemia
What is the process of brown fat utilisation called?
What is the normal RR of a newborn?
Anything between 30-60, but 40-50 is most common
How can you quickly calculate a woman's delivery date?
Add 9 months and 7 days on to her last menstrual period
What are the 3 main hormones required for growth in children?
- Growth hormone
- Thyroid hormone
What happens to the surfactant in the lungs when a baby gets too cold?
It deactivates and the baby can enter respiratory distress
What are the 3 main processes of organisation within the embryo?
- Pattern formation
- Body plan
- Positional information
What causes the ductus arteriosus to close off?
A fall in pulmonary pressure means oxygenated blood from the aorta is passed through the ductus arteriosus.
The high levels of oxygen in the blood causes the smooth muscle to contract and this causes the duct to close
What is the normal BP for a newborn?
What layer of the blastocyst needs to be removed for implantation into the uterus to occur?
The zona pellucida
Which class of cells are gametes derived from?
Primordial germ cells that develop in the 2nd week of an embryo
What 3 processes need to occur on implantation?
Decidual reaction; epithelium reacts to implantation
Syncititiotrophoblast formation; trophoblastic cells merge to form a synctitium
Embryoblast differentiation; embryo begins to differentiate in 2 layers
Which hormone stimulates the interstitial cells of the testes to produce testosterone?
Male LH, sometimes called interstitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH)
What are Stork mark/ Salmon patches?
- Superficial capillary haemangioma
- Seen on neck and face, usually fade within 1 year
- Seen in ~30% of newborns
Where in the uterine tube does fertilisation occur?
On what day after fertilisation does implantation usually occur?
6th day, or 20 days since LMP
What are the 3 distinct layers of the morula?
Inner embryoblast; blastomeres that will form the embryo
Outer trophoblast; blastomeres that will become supporting structures such as placenta
Zona pellucida; Surrounding layer of glycoprotein that prevents further entry of sperm
What is morphogenesis?
It is the generation of form, such as gastrulation or neurulation that is achieved through migration and adhesion of cells
What is special about 'brown' adipose tissue?
It is used to produce heat only
What are the 3 mechanisms of growth and describe each 1 briefly
Proliferation; increase in cell number
Hypertrophy; increase in cell size
Accretion; increase in extracellular matrix secretion
What is the function of LH in females?
Stimulates ovulation and then stimulates the empty follicle to produce progesterone
Which hormone in females stimulates the follicles to produce oestrogen?
What are the 2 layers the embryoblast?
What are Milia?
Cysts caused by retained secretions in pilaceous follicles
Occurs in ~40% of newborns
What 2 septa are brought together when the foramen ovale closes?
- The septum primum
- The septum secundum
Over what time period does catch down growth occur?
Starts around 3-6 months until about 9-20 months
At which day post-fertilisation does the morula form?
Approximately 3-4 days
What 4 systems undergo rapid adaptations soon after birth?
Which part of the uterus does implantation usually occur?
The anterior or posterior wall of the uterus
What are the 4 main phases of growth?How much does each phase contribute to overall growth of the child?
- Foetal; 30%
- Infantile; 15%
- Childhood; 40%
- Pubertal; 15%
What causes the maturation of bones and consequently ends growth?
What is the HR range in a newborn?
What are the 2 structures that close in the circulatory system soon after birth?
- Ductus arteriosus
- Foramen ovale
What are the cells within the zygote called (under 8 cells)
What is the colostrum?
A 5-7ml high energy initial breast milk that contains proteins, immune cells and immunoglobulins
What are the dates of the embryonic period?
From fertilisation to the 8th week
What is adrenarche, and when does it usually begin?
It is the development of pubertal and axillary hair caused by increased androgen secretion from the adrenal glands.
Typically begins around 6-8 years old
Over what time period does catch-up growth occur in low birth weight babies?
Birth - 6-18 months
What is Gonadarche and when does it usually begin?
- It is the onset of puberty, caused by increased GnRH secretion from the hypothalamus during the night
- This leads to FSH and LH release
- Usually begins by the end of the 1st decade of life
What are the 5 stages of the menstrual cycle?
- Menstruation (4-6 days)
- Reparative phase (4 days)
- Proliferative phase (10-12 days
- )Ovulation (14 days before menstruation)
- Secretory phase (14 days)
What is the cavity within the bastocyst called?