Describe the graph of blood pressure.
Coordinates are Pressure vs. Time. 1. Height of graph - systolic pressure 2. Nadir of graph - diastolic pressure 3. Dichrotic notch - found in time, just after the height of systolic pressure
What is pulse pressure?
SP - DP
What is mean arterial pressure?
DP + 1/3PP The average pressure over the entire cardiac cycle
What causes the dicrotic notch?
The dicrotic notch is a dip right after the height of the systolic pressure, caused by the backfilling of the aortic valve as it closes.
What is the normal PP?
About 40 mmHg (120-80)
T/F: Blood is a Newtonian fluid.
False. Blood is a non-Newtonian fluid.
Flow in a series tube is:
constant, no matter the size of the vessel, Q1=Q2=Q3
Flow in a parallel circuit is:
Additive Q = Q1 + Q2 + Q3
T/F: In order to avoid hypoxia, the flow of oxygen in the arteries to the tissues must be equal to or greater than the rate of oxygen consumption by the tissues.
In the parallel architecture of the cardiovascular system, the flow of oxygen is distributed to each tissue at rest in accordance with what?
The metabolic needs of the tissue
Dramatic increases in blood flow to the skin, muscles, and heart during exercise as the venous reserve is mobilized, blood flow to what organ is maintained?
What is the equation for flow (mL O2/min)?
Flow = CO x Arterial O2 content mL O2/min = (L blood/min)x(mL O2/L blood)
During exercise, what organ sees the most increased blood flow?
Av A1v1 = A2v2
A man has a CO of 5 L/min. The diameter of his aorta is 25 mm and the total SA of the systemic capillaries is estimated to be 2500cm2. What is the relative velocity of his blood in capillaries vs. aorta?
Q = Av A = πr2 1 L = 1000cm2
d/2 = r = 12.5mm = 1.25 cm2
Aorta and capillaries are in series, therefore volume flow is the same.
Aaorta = π(1.25)2 = 4.9cm2 5 L/min = 5000 cm2/min
v aorta = Q/A = 5000/4.9 = 1020 cm/min = 17 cm/s
v capillaries = Q/A = 5000/2500 = 2 cm/min = 0.033 cm/s
v aorta/v capillaries = 2500/4.9 = 510
Give the two equations for transit time required for a blood cell to travel between two points in the system.
t = V/Q (volume/flow)
t = I/v (length/velocity)
If capillary blood velocity is 500 microns/s, and capillary length is 0.5 mm, then the capillary transit time is?
t = l/v 1 mm = 1000 microns
0.5 mm --> 500 microns
500 micons/500 microns/s
t = 1 s
The total circulation time for one pass through thr entire systemic and pulmonary circulation is about how long?
What is the relationship between blood flow and pressure?
Q = P/R
What are the frictional forces in blood flow?
Viscosity of flow
Resistance (walls of vessel)
When shoveling snow, the cold temperature increases blood viscosity, contributing to what kind of flow change of blood in the fingers? Is there heat loss or gain?
Decreased blood flow (sludging)
Decreased heat loss
The more branches in a parallel network, the ___ the total resistance.
Why do individual capillaries have high resistance?
Radius of the vessels are small