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Flashcards in 1.1 Basic Topography Deck (61):
1

What constitutes the CNS?

Cerebral hemispheres
Brainstem
Cerebellum
Spinal cord

2

What constitutes the PNS?

Dorsal and Ventral roots
Spinal nerves
Peripheral nerves

3

Is the cauda equina CNS or PNS?

PNS

4

Why is grey matter... grey?

Does not contain much myelin

Due to presence of cell bodies

Highly vascularised

5

In which matter does computation occur?

Grey

6

What does grey matter contain?

Cell bodies

Dendrites

7

What does white matter contain?

Axons

8

Why is white matter... white?

Due to fatty myelin around the axons

9

What is the PNS equivalent of grey matter?

Ganglion

10

What is the PNS equivalent of white matter?

Peripheral nerves

11

In the spinal cord, what matter is in the middle and the outside?

Grey matter = inside

White matte = outside

12

What is the function of the dorsal side of the spinal cord?

Sensory

13

What is the function of the ventral side of the spinal cord?

Motor

14

What is the swelling on the dorsal root?

Dorsal root ganglion

15

What does the dorsal root ganglion contain?

Cell bodies of sensory neurones

16

What does the dorsal and ventral roots come together to form?

A mixed SPINAL NERVE

17

Where does the spinal cord begin and end?

foramen magnum
-->
Around L1

18

What does a spinal cord segments supply?

A dermatome
and
a myotome

19

How is the layout of matter in the brain different to the spinal cord?

Core - Grey

Outer - White

Outermost - Grey (THIS IS THE DIFFERENCE)

20

What is a funiculus?

Segment of white matter containing multiple distinct tracts

Impulses travel in multiple directions

21

What is a tract?

Anatomically and functionally defined white matter pathway

Connecting two distinct regions of grey matte

Impulses travel in ONE direction

22

What is a fasciculus?

A subdivision of a tract

Supplies a distinct region of the body

23

What is the organisation of white matter in the body?

Funiculus
-->
Tract
-->
Fasciculus

24

How is the grey matter in the spinal cord organised?

Rexed's laminae

(Do not need to know more than this)

25

What is a nucleus?

Collection of functionally related cell bodies

in the CNS

26

What is cortex?

Folded sheet of cell bodies

Found on the surface of brain structures

Covers the cerebral hemispheres

27

What is an association fibre?

Axon that connects cortical regions

Within the SAME hemisphere

28

What is a commissural fibre?

Axon that connects LEFT and RIGHT hemispheres

(Or cord halves)

29

What are projection fibres?

Connect cerebral hemispheres with the CORD/brainstem

Vice Versa

30

What is the top layer of the cerebellum?

Cerebellar cortex

31

Give an example of commissural fibres?

Corpus callosum

32

What is the midbrain also known as?

Mesencephalon

33

What is the midbrain responsible for?

Eye movements

Reflex responses to sound and vision

34

What is the pons responsible for?

Feeding

Sleeping

35

What is the medulla responsible for?

Cardiovascular centre
Respiratory centre
Medullary pyramids (Motor)

36

What does the central sulcus separate?

Frontal and parietal lobes

37

What does the precentral gyrus contain?

Primary motor cortex

38

What does the postcentral gyrus contain?

Primary sensory cortex

39

What does the lateral fissure separate?

Temporal and frontal/parietal lobes

40

What does the parieto-occipital sulcus separate?

Parietal and occipital lobes

41

What is significant about the calcarine sulcus?

The primary visual cortex surrounds this

42

How would you try and recognise the central sulcus?

From temporal lobe to the midline unimpeded

43

What is the uncus and what does it contain?

Part of temporal lobe

Contains the olfactory cortex

44

What is the corpus callosum?

White matter connecting the two cerebral hemispheres

45

What does the thalamus do?

Sensory relay station

Projects to sensory cortex

46

What does the cingulate gyrus do?

Cortical area

Emotion and memory

47

What does the hypothalamus do?

Centre for homeostasis

48

What does the fornix do?

Output pathway from the hippocampus

49

What does the tectum do?

Dorsal part of midbrain

Responses to auditory and visual stimuli

50

What can happen to the cerebellar tonsil?

Can herniate

compress the medulla

51

What are the hollow cavities in the brain called?

Ventricles

52

What produces CSF and where is it located?

Choroid plexus

In the brain ventricles

53

What happens to CSF once synthesised?

Circulates through ventricular system and subarachnoid space

Reabsorbed at arachnoid granulations

54

At which point do the two lateral ventricles come together?

Interventricular foramen

55

Where does CSF drain to as it leaves the lateral ventricles

Through interventricular foramen

Into third ventricle

56

What sits either side of the the third ventricle?

Thalamus

57

What is the passage between the third and the fourth ventricles?

Cerebral aqueduct

58

what is the passageway leaving the fourth ventricle?>

Central canal

59

How does CSF drain into spinal cord?

Only a tiny bit from central canal

Through the medial aperture of the fourth ventricle

60

What abnormality can in the brain's ventricular system to cause hydrocephalus?

Congenital stenosis of cerebral aqueduct

61

What reabsorbs CSF?

Arachnoid granulations