Flashcards in 1.1 Basic Topography Deck (61):
What constitutes the CNS?
What constitutes the PNS?
Dorsal and Ventral roots
Is the cauda equina CNS or PNS?
Why is grey matter... grey?
Does not contain much myelin
Due to presence of cell bodies
In which matter does computation occur?
What does grey matter contain?
What does white matter contain?
Why is white matter... white?
Due to fatty myelin around the axons
What is the PNS equivalent of grey matter?
What is the PNS equivalent of white matter?
In the spinal cord, what matter is in the middle and the outside?
Grey matter = inside
White matte = outside
What is the function of the dorsal side of the spinal cord?
What is the function of the ventral side of the spinal cord?
What is the swelling on the dorsal root?
Dorsal root ganglion
What does the dorsal root ganglion contain?
Cell bodies of sensory neurones
What does the dorsal and ventral roots come together to form?
A mixed SPINAL NERVE
Where does the spinal cord begin and end?
What does a spinal cord segments supply?
How is the layout of matter in the brain different to the spinal cord?
Core - Grey
Outer - White
Outermost - Grey (THIS IS THE DIFFERENCE)
What is a funiculus?
Segment of white matter containing multiple distinct tracts
Impulses travel in multiple directions
What is a tract?
Anatomically and functionally defined white matter pathway
Connecting two distinct regions of grey matte
Impulses travel in ONE direction
What is a fasciculus?
A subdivision of a tract
Supplies a distinct region of the body
What is the organisation of white matter in the body?
How is the grey matter in the spinal cord organised?
(Do not need to know more than this)
What is a nucleus?
Collection of functionally related cell bodies
in the CNS
What is cortex?
Folded sheet of cell bodies
Found on the surface of brain structures
Covers the cerebral hemispheres
What is an association fibre?
Axon that connects cortical regions
Within the SAME hemisphere
What is a commissural fibre?
Axon that connects LEFT and RIGHT hemispheres
(Or cord halves)
What are projection fibres?
Connect cerebral hemispheres with the CORD/brainstem
What is the top layer of the cerebellum?
Give an example of commissural fibres?
What is the midbrain also known as?
What is the midbrain responsible for?
Reflex responses to sound and vision
What is the pons responsible for?
What is the medulla responsible for?
Medullary pyramids (Motor)
What does the central sulcus separate?
Frontal and parietal lobes
What does the precentral gyrus contain?
Primary motor cortex
What does the postcentral gyrus contain?
Primary sensory cortex
What does the lateral fissure separate?
Temporal and frontal/parietal lobes
What does the parieto-occipital sulcus separate?
Parietal and occipital lobes
What is significant about the calcarine sulcus?
The primary visual cortex surrounds this
How would you try and recognise the central sulcus?
From temporal lobe to the midline unimpeded
What is the uncus and what does it contain?
Part of temporal lobe
Contains the olfactory cortex
What is the corpus callosum?
White matter connecting the two cerebral hemispheres
What does the thalamus do?
Sensory relay station
Projects to sensory cortex
What does the cingulate gyrus do?
Emotion and memory
What does the hypothalamus do?
Centre for homeostasis
What does the fornix do?
Output pathway from the hippocampus
What does the tectum do?
Dorsal part of midbrain
Responses to auditory and visual stimuli
What can happen to the cerebellar tonsil?
compress the medulla
What are the hollow cavities in the brain called?
What produces CSF and where is it located?
In the brain ventricles
What happens to CSF once synthesised?
Circulates through ventricular system and subarachnoid space
Reabsorbed at arachnoid granulations
At which point do the two lateral ventricles come together?
Where does CSF drain to as it leaves the lateral ventricles
Through interventricular foramen
Into third ventricle
What sits either side of the the third ventricle?
What is the passage between the third and the fourth ventricles?
what is the passageway leaving the fourth ventricle?>
How does CSF drain into spinal cord?
Only a tiny bit from central canal
Through the medial aperture of the fourth ventricle
What abnormality can in the brain's ventricular system to cause hydrocephalus?
Congenital stenosis of cerebral aqueduct