11 Chemotherapy and Biotherapy Flashcards Preview

CPHON Slides > 11 Chemotherapy and Biotherapy > Flashcards

Flashcards in 11 Chemotherapy and Biotherapy Deck (20)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q

Which 2 chemos were originally supposed to be antibiotics in the 50s?

A

dactino and dauno

2
Q

Dr. Farber noted leukemic children are usually deficient in this, and when they get supplements it accelerated leukemia.

A

folic acid. so he worked with folic acid antagonist precurser which was eventually methotrexate

3
Q

What are some examples of biotherapy?

A

tyrosine kinase inhibitors (-nibs), monoclonal antibodies (-mabs)

4
Q

What is ‘neoadjuvant’ chemo

A

used preoperatively to decrease tumor burden

5
Q

What are ‘sanctuary sites’?

A

places where cancer can hide- CNS, ovaries, testicles

6
Q

What is the significance of the ‘MDR gene’

A

Multidrug resistance- an intrinsic factor of resistance to chemo, even when not exposed to i yet.

7
Q

Which type of chemo is better given as a bolus - cell cycle specific or cell cycle non specific?

A

Non-specific. Works in any phase of cell division. The cell cycle specific chemo is better when divided doses or continuous infusion to hit more points in the cycle.

8
Q

Most chemos damage the DNA. Which class causes cell cycle phase arrest - keeping cell in one phase so division doesnt occur? which type interfers with protein synthesis?

A

Cycle phase arrest- plant alkaloids

Protein synth - hormonal agents

9
Q

What do angiogenesis inhibitors interfere with?

A

blood supply/development of blood vessels to the tumor cells.

10
Q

Examples of cell cycle specific agents? (most are nonspecific)

A

vinca alkaloids, antimetabolites and some misc agents like PEG and dacarbazine

11
Q

lomustine, cyclophos/ifos, mechlorethamine, carbo, temodar, cisplat - what category?

A

alkylating agents

12
Q

vincristine, etop, irinotecan, taxanes are what category?

A

plant alkaloids

13
Q

Dauno/doxo, dactino, bleo are which drug category? specific or not?

A

antitumor antibiotics, not specific. synthesized from bacteria or fungi.

14
Q

These chemo drugs are cell specific (s phase) and interfere with cell metabolism by inhibiting the production of a specific enzyme so it is none functioning. interrupts DNA/RNA synth

A

antimetabolites

15
Q

folic acid antagonists (methotrexate), purine antagonists (6mp, 6tg, clofarabine, nelarabine), Ribonucleotide reductase inhibs (hydroxyurea) and pyrimidine antagonists (5FU, ARAC, gemcitabine) are which category?

A

antimetabolites.

16
Q

Most common hormonal agent used in treating ALL?

A

corticosteroids. they destroy lymphoblasts and may have other side effects.

17
Q

Which category are avastin and PEG?

A

misc. unclear how it works but may prevent blood vessels?

18
Q

Three categories of action for biotherapies?

A
  • agents that change or restore the hosts immune responses
  • direct anti tumor activity
  • other (cell transformation, changing ability to metastasize, etc)
19
Q

What is the basic definition of interferon?

A

a protein that can interfere with viral replication

20
Q

Which drug category is imatinib, to block proliferation of the philadelphia chromosome/BRCABL?

A

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors