11 Components Of Immune System Flashcards Preview

02 Hematology And Immunology > 11 Components Of Immune System > Flashcards

Flashcards in 11 Components Of Immune System Deck (37):
1

Recognizes structures characteristic of microbial pathogens not present in mammalian cells

Specificity

2

Substances that trigger innate immunity

Pathogen-associated molecular patterns

3

Produced by epithelial cells and neutrophils, NK cells, and cytotoxic T lymphocytes
Exhibits direct toxicity to microbes and activation of cells involved in inflammatory response to microbes

Defensins

4

Expressed by epithelial cells and neutrophils
Direct toxicity to microbes and activation of leukocytes and other cells to eradicate microbes
Can bind and neutralize LPS

Cathelicidins

5

APCs that identify, ingest, and destroy microbes
Produce cytokines with important roles in innate and adaptive immune responses and tissue repair

Phagocytic cells

6

Aka PMNs
Most abundant population of circulating white blood cells
Mediate earliest phases of inflammation
Two types of granules

Neutrophils

7

Immature macrophages
First cell type that enters the blood after leaving the marrow
Mature and become macrophages upon tissue entry
Form specialized macrophages based on tissue they enter

Monocytes

8

Respond to microbes almost as quickly as neutrophils but survive much longer
Dominant effector cells in the later stages of innate immune response, 1-2 days after infection

Macrophages

9

Most effective APCs for initiating T cell responses
Found in lymphoid tissues, mucosal epithelial, and organ parenchyma

Dendritic cells

10

Specialized early cellular responders to viral infections

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells

11

Related to lymphocytes
Recognize and directly kill infected and/or stressed cells
Secretes inflammatory cytokines
Recognize MHC class I on normal healthy cells

NK Cells

12

Carbohydrate-binding proteins present on leukocytes, endothelial cells and platelets
Regulate migration of leukocytes to tissue

Selectin

13

Types of Selectin

P, E, L

14

Stored in cytoplasmic granule, endothelial surface and platelets
Translocation to the endothelial surface within minutes in response to microbial products and cytokines

P-selectin

15

Aka endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1
Exclusively expressed on cytokine-activated endothelial cells
Expressed on cell surface within 1-2 hours

E-selectin

16

Expressed on lymphocytes and other leukocytes
Homing receptor for lymphocytes and other leukocytes to lymph nodes
High expression on naive T cells
Low expression on activated effector and memory cells

L-selectin

17

Chemoattractrant proteins
Stimulate chemotaxis of leukocytes
Recruits leukocytes, regulate migration from blood to tissue
Produced by tissue macrophages, endothelial cells and other types of cells in response to microbial products, IL-1 and TNF
Bind to specific chemokine receptors on the surface of rolling leukocytes

Chemokines

18

Family of adhesion molecules expressed by leukocytes
Low affinity state in unactivated cells
Stronger binding of leukocytes to cell membrane

Integrins

19

Complement system
Mediators of inflammation
Recognize PAMPs and serve as effector molecules in innate immunity, others as opsonins

Blood proteins

20

Regulate and coordinate activities of the cells of innate immunity

Cytokines

21

Specifically recognize and respond to foreign antigens
Mediators of cellular and humoral immunity
Distinct subtypes with different ways of responding to different antigens
Only cells in the body capable of specifically recognizing and distinguishing different antigenic determinants
Responsible for specificity and memory

Lymphocytes

22

Precursors from bone marrow migrate to and mature in the thymus
Effectors: helper T cells, CTL, regulatory T cells

T lymphocytes

23

First discovered in birds, specifically in the Bursa of Fabricius
Effectors: plasma cells

B lymphocytes

24

Captures antigen and displays them to lymphocytes, signaling proliferation and differentiation

Antigen Presenting Cell

25

Major APC that initiates T cell responses
Found in epithelial barriers
Mobilize to lymphoid tissues and present to T cells

Dendritic cells

26

Not related to dendritic cells
Cells with membranous projections in lymphoid tissues that catch antigen from antibody or complement complexes and display them to B cells

Follicular dendritic cells

27

Where lymphocytes first express antigen receptors, attain phenotypic and functional maturity
Bone marrow and thymus

Primary/central/generative lymphoid organs

28

Where lymphocytic responses to foreign antigens initiate and develop
Lymph nodes, spleen, cutaneous immune system, mucosal immune system

Secondary/peripheral lymphoid organs

29

B cell zone
Contains follicles

Cortex

30

T cell zone
Mostly proliferating and maturing T cells with the aid of dendritic cells

Paracortex

31

Contains medullary cords with medullary sinuses in between

Medulla

32

Major site of immune responses to blood-borne antigens
Phagocytosis of antibody-coated microbes

Spleen

33

Lymphocyte-rich areas around /near central arteries

White pulp

34

Extensive vascular sinusoids with RBCs, macrophages and dendritic cells

White pulp

35

Cutaneous immune system involves:

Keratinocytes
Langerhans cells
Intraepithelial T cells

36

High levels of IgA production
Tendency of oral immunization with protein antigens to induce T cell intolerance

Gut-associated lymphoid tissue

37

Found in small intestine
Organized collections throughout lamina propria
Central follicular region is B cell rich
Covered by M cells

Peyer's patches