2 leading causes of death?
What is the epidemiological transition and where does it happen first?
move from communicable (infectious) + trauma–> non-communicable disease
Happens in rich/western countries first
2 things that cause incidence of cancer to vary dramatically?
Country Age (50% over 65s)
What do therapies vs prevention affect?
Therapies affects mortality
Prevention affects incidence
How do you know if a cancer is caused by genes or environment?
What does a fast vs slow change in cancer risk in a migrant study suggest?
Fast=lifestyle/environmental factors act as carcinogens
Why has stomach cancer incidence declined?
better food preservation-less H-pylori
What is generally happening to cancer incidence?
increasing (but beginning to plateau/decrease) in both high + low income countries
What is happening to cancer mortalities generally?
decreasing in high income countries but not low income countries
What is happening to total burden of cancer?
increasing due to demographic changes
- ageing populations
- increasing size of populations
What types of cancers are low income countries still experiencing alot?
infectious / lifestyle
Causes of cancer:
What 2 things could genetic be referring to?
Examples of environmental risk factors for cancer:
smoking diet alcohol exercise pollutants infection occupation
Example of environmental factor that its hard to study the effects of?
Why is obesity linked to cancer?
inflammatory cytokines–>chronic inflammation which is hallmark of cancer
inflammation selects mutated cells