Flashcards in 11: Study Guide Deck (66)
"PRENATAL growth from 5 months to birth when the FETUS grows from the INSIDE of the body OUTWARDS. e.g. CNS, then ORGANS, then LIMBS."
"to develop from HEAD to TAIL. e.g. BRAIN/HEAD development FIRST"
CRITICISMS of PIAGET'S THEORY (3)
- PROBLEMS W/ RESEARCH METHODS (research sample was all from children of well-educated families)
- FORMAL OPERATIONS environmental factors may play a role in the development of formal operations.
- UNDERESTIMATES CHILDREN'S ABILITIES
children 4-5years have some ability to take the perspective of another person, meaning they are far less egocentric than Piaget believed.
"children become PASSIVE; more susceptible to .. .. during adolescence; learn NOT to DISCUSS ISSUES with their parents; LESS self-reliant, persistent, and socially poised, and have LOWER .....; boys in this category have the highest level of ..
- PEER PRESSURE
"In effect, parents teach their children that they can get their way by .. others: "Children learn a false sense of CONTROL over adults that increases their manipulative behavior; LACK of .. and structure"
"one-celled organism formed by the union of a sperm and an egg."
"extends from CONCEPTION to BIRTH, usually encompassing NINE months of pregnancy"
- PRENATAL PERIOD
"when FERTILIZATION creates a ZYGOTE"
DEVELOPMENT during prenatal period is .. (if your physical growth continued at your prenatal pace, you would be... pounds by your first birthday)
The PRENATAL STAGE is divided into (3) phases:
- GERMINAL STAGE (first 2 weeks)
- EMBRYONIC STAGE (2 weeks to 2 months)
- FETAL STAGES (2 months to birth)
"Within 36 hours, .. .. .. begins. The zygote becomes a .. .. of ... cells. This mass of cells slowly migrates along the mother's .. .. to the .. .. On the .. DAY, the cell mass begins to implant itself into the .. .. During the .. process, the .. begins to form."
--> GERMINAL PHASE
- RAPID CELL DIVISION
- MICROSCOPIC MASS
- MULTIPLYING CELLS
- FALLOPIAN TUBE
- UTERINE CAVITY
- UTERINE WALL
"During this stage, most of the .. .. and bodily .. begin to DEVELOP in the developing organism. This stage is a period of great .. because virtually all the basic .. .. are being formed. Most .. occur during this period. Most major .. .. .. are due to problems that occur during this stage"
--> EMBRYONIC STAGE
- BODILY SYSTEMS
- PHYSIOLOGICAL STRUCTURES
- STRUCTURAL BIRTH DEFECTS
"The first 2 months of the FETAL STAGE bring .. .. ... The FETUS becomes capable of . .. as .. .. harden."
- RAPID BODILY GROWTH
- PHYSICAL MOVEMENT
- SKELETAL STRUCTURES
TERATOGENS that can affect development (6)
- RECREATIONAL DRUGS (heroin, coke)
- MEDICAL DRUGS
- TOXINS (air pollution)
- ILLNESSES (measles)
Basic styles of TEMPERAMENT according to the longitudinal study by THOMAS and CHESS (3)
- EASY CHILDREN
- SLOW-TO-WARM-UP CHILDREN
- DIFFICULT CHILDREN
TEMPERAMENT (2) work of Jerome Kagan and his colleagues
- INHIBITED TEMPERAMENT (shyness, wariness of unfamiliar people)
- UNINHIBITED TEMPERAMENT (less restrained, approach unfamiliar people with little trepidation)
How VYGOTSKY's theory differs from PIAGET (3)
- MORE EMPHASIS ON CULTURE
- MORE EMPHASIS ON SOCIAL FACTORS
- MORE EMPHASIS ON THE ROLE OF LANGUAGE
HARLOWE'S experiment emphasizes the importance of .. ..
- CONTACT COMFORT
Theorists have suggested that the .. of the .. .. may explain why RISKY BEHAVIOR (such as .. .., experimentation with drugs, binge drinking, unprotected sex..) peaks during .. and declines with ..
- PREFRONTAL CORTEX
- RECKLESS DRIVING
(ADOLESCENT RISK-TAKING EXPERIMENT) As hypothesized, the results suggest that .. to .. .. may be a .. .. contributing to greater .. .. in .. than .. ("for reasons not yet understood")
- PEER INFLUENCE
- KEY FACTOR
"The finding that the search for .. often extends into .. is one of the many considerations that has led JEFFREY ARNETT to make the radical claim that we ought to recognize the existence of a .. .. .. in modern societies."
- NEW DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE
"Arnett maintains that EMERGING ADULTHOOD is marked by a number of .. .. (1) a central feature is the .. .. that one is between .. and .. (do you feel like you have reached adulthood? yes and no (2) emerging adulthood is an .. .. .. ; it tends to be a time of .. .. about one's .. ..(3) it is a .. .. time of life
- DISTINCT FEATURES
- SUBJECTIVE FEELING
- ADOLESCENCE AND ADULTHOOD
- AGE OF POSSIBILITIES
- GREAT OPTIMISM
- PERSONAL FUTURE
KEY TRANSITIONS in FAMILY LIFE (3)
- ADJUSTING TO EMPTY NEST
"a notable feature of EGOCENTRISM is .., the belief that all things are living. Thus youngsters attribute lifelike, human qualities to inanimate objects asking questions such as "when does the ocean stop to rest?," "why does the wind get so mad?"
Researcher James Marcia (1966, 1976, 1980) has expanded upon Erikson's initial theory on .. ... According to Marcia and his colleagues, the balance between .. and .. lies in making a .. to an identity.
- IDENTITY CRISES
- IDENTITY AND CONFUSION
Marcia's (4) different adolescent identity statuses
- IDENTITY ACHIEVEMENT
- IDENTITY DIFFUSION
"status when a person has made a COMMITMENT without attempting IDENTITY EXPLORATION. (I'll just take on the values of my parents)"
"status of a person who is ACTIVELY INVOLVED in EXPLORING DIFFERENT IDENTITIES, but has not made a commitment."
"when an individual has gone through an exploration of different identities and made a commitment to one."
- IDENTITY ACHIEVEMENT