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Flashcards in 11: Study Guide Deck (66):
1

"PRENATAL growth from 5 months to birth when the FETUS grows from the INSIDE of the body OUTWARDS. e.g. CNS, then ORGANS, then LIMBS."

- PROXIMODISTAL

2

"to develop from HEAD to TAIL. e.g. BRAIN/HEAD development FIRST"

- CEPHALOCAUDAL

3

CRITICISMS of PIAGET'S THEORY (3)

- PROBLEMS W/ RESEARCH METHODS (research sample was all from children of well-educated families)
- FORMAL OPERATIONS environmental factors may play a role in the development of formal operations.
- UNDERESTIMATES CHILDREN'S ABILITIES
children 4-5years have some ability to take the perspective of another person, meaning they are far less egocentric than Piaget believed.

4

"children become PASSIVE; more susceptible to .. .. during adolescence; learn NOT to DISCUSS ISSUES with their parents; LESS self-reliant, persistent, and socially poised, and have LOWER .....; boys in this category have the highest level of ..

-->AUTHORITARIAN
- PEER PRESSURE
- SELF-ESTEEM
- VIOLENCE

5

"In effect, parents teach their children that they can get their way by .. others: "Children learn a false sense of CONTROL over adults that increases their manipulative behavior; LACK of .. and structure"

-->PERMISSIVE
- MANIPULATING
- DISCIPLINE

6

"one-celled organism formed by the union of a sperm and an egg."

- ZYGOTE

7

"extends from CONCEPTION to BIRTH, usually encompassing NINE months of pregnancy"

- PRENATAL PERIOD

8

"when FERTILIZATION creates a ZYGOTE"

- CONCEPTION

9

DEVELOPMENT during prenatal period is .. (if your physical growth continued at your prenatal pace, you would be... pounds by your first birthday)

- RAPID
- 200

10

The PRENATAL STAGE is divided into (3) phases:

- GERMINAL STAGE (first 2 weeks)
- EMBRYONIC STAGE (2 weeks to 2 months)
- FETAL STAGES (2 months to birth)

11

"Within 36 hours, .. .. .. begins. The zygote becomes a .. .. of ... cells. This mass of cells slowly migrates along the mother's .. .. to the .. .. On the .. DAY, the cell mass begins to implant itself into the .. .. During the .. process, the .. begins to form."

--> GERMINAL PHASE
- RAPID CELL DIVISION
- MICROSCOPIC MASS
- MULTIPLYING CELLS
- FALLOPIAN TUBE
- UTERINE CAVITY
- SEVENTH
- UTERINE WALL
- IMPLANTATION
- PLACENTA

12

"During this stage, most of the .. .. and bodily .. begin to DEVELOP in the developing organism. This stage is a period of great .. because virtually all the basic .. .. are being formed. Most .. occur during this period. Most major .. .. .. are due to problems that occur during this stage"

--> EMBRYONIC STAGE
-VITAL ORGANS
- BODILY SYSTEMS
- VULNERABILITY
- PHYSIOLOGICAL STRUCTURES
- MISCARRIAGES
- STRUCTURAL BIRTH DEFECTS
-

13

"The first 2 months of the FETAL STAGE bring .. .. ... The FETUS becomes capable of . .. as .. .. harden."

- RAPID BODILY GROWTH
- PHYSICAL MOVEMENT
- SKELETAL STRUCTURES

14

TERATOGENS that can affect development (6)

- RECREATIONAL DRUGS (heroin, coke)
- ALCOHOL
- MEDICAL DRUGS
- TOXINS (air pollution)
- ILLNESSES (measles)
- NUTRITIONS

15

Basic styles of TEMPERAMENT according to the longitudinal study by THOMAS and CHESS (3)

- EASY CHILDREN
- SLOW-TO-WARM-UP CHILDREN
- DIFFICULT CHILDREN

16

TEMPERAMENT (2) work of Jerome Kagan and his colleagues

- INHIBITED TEMPERAMENT (shyness, wariness of unfamiliar people)
- UNINHIBITED TEMPERAMENT (less restrained, approach unfamiliar people with little trepidation)

17

How VYGOTSKY's theory differs from PIAGET (3)

- MORE EMPHASIS ON CULTURE
- MORE EMPHASIS ON SOCIAL FACTORS
- MORE EMPHASIS ON THE ROLE OF LANGUAGE

18

HARLOWE'S experiment emphasizes the importance of .. ..

- CONTACT COMFORT

19

Theorists have suggested that the .. of the .. .. may explain why RISKY BEHAVIOR (such as .. .., experimentation with drugs, binge drinking, unprotected sex..) peaks during .. and declines with ..

- IMMATURITY
- PREFRONTAL CORTEX
- RECKLESS DRIVING
- ADOLESCENCE
- ADULTHOOD

20

(ADOLESCENT RISK-TAKING EXPERIMENT) As hypothesized, the results suggest that .. to .. .. may be a .. .. contributing to greater .. .. in .. than .. ("for reasons not yet understood")

- SUSCEPTIBILITY
- PEER INFLUENCE
- KEY FACTOR
- RISK-TAKING
- ADOLESCENTS
- ADULTS

21

"The finding that the search for .. often extends into .. is one of the many considerations that has led JEFFREY ARNETT to make the radical claim that we ought to recognize the existence of a .. .. .. in modern societies."

- IDENTITY
- ADULTHOOD
- NEW DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE

22

"Arnett maintains that EMERGING ADULTHOOD is marked by a number of .. .. (1) a central feature is the .. .. that one is between .. and .. (do you feel like you have reached adulthood? yes and no (2) emerging adulthood is an .. .. .. ; it tends to be a time of .. .. about one's .. ..(3) it is a .. .. time of life

- DISTINCT FEATURES
- SUBJECTIVE FEELING
- ADOLESCENCE AND ADULTHOOD
- AGE OF POSSIBILITIES
- GREAT OPTIMISM
- PERSONAL FUTURE
- SELF-FOCUSED

23

KEY TRANSITIONS in FAMILY LIFE (3)

- MARRIAGE
- PARENTHOOD
- ADJUSTING TO EMPTY NEST

24

"a notable feature of EGOCENTRISM is .., the belief that all things are living. Thus youngsters attribute lifelike, human qualities to inanimate objects asking questions such as "when does the ocean stop to rest?," "why does the wind get so mad?"

-->PREOPERATIONAL
- ANIMISM

25

Researcher James Marcia (1966, 1976, 1980) has expanded upon Erikson's initial theory on .. ... According to Marcia and his colleagues, the balance between .. and .. lies in making a .. to an identity.

- IDENTITY CRISES
- IDENTITY AND CONFUSION
- COMMITMENT

26

Marcia's (4) different adolescent identity statuses

- IDENTITY ACHIEVEMENT
- MORATIUM
- FORECLOSURE
- IDENTITY DIFFUSION

27

"status when a person has made a COMMITMENT without attempting IDENTITY EXPLORATION. (I'll just take on the values of my parents)"

- FORECLOSURE

28

"status of a person who is ACTIVELY INVOLVED in EXPLORING DIFFERENT IDENTITIES, but has not made a commitment."

- MORATIUM

29

"when an individual has gone through an exploration of different identities and made a commitment to one."

- IDENTITY ACHIEVEMENT

30

"when there is NEITHER an IDENTITY CRISIS OR COMMITMENT."

- IDENTITY DIFFUSION

31

"right and wrong is determined by WHAT IS PUNISHED"

- PUNISHMENT ORIENTATION (stage 1)
- KOHLBERG
- PRECONVENTIONAL

32

"right and wrong is determined by WHAT IS REWARDED"

- NAIVE REWARD ORIENTATION (stage 2)
- KOHLBERG
- PRECONVENTIONAL

33

SCHEMAS are for .. and SCRIPTS are for ..

- THOUGHTS
- ACTIONS

34

"right and wrong is determined by close others' APPROVAL AND DISAPPROVAL"

- GOOD BOY/GOOD GIRL ORIENTATION (stage 3)
- KOHLBERG
- CONVENTIONAL

35

"right and wrong is determined by SOCIETY'S RULES and LAWS, which should be OBEYED RIGIDLY"

- AUTHORITY ORIENTATION (stage 4)
- KOHLBERG
- CONVENTIONAL

36

"Right and wrong is determined by society's rules, which are viewed as FALLIBLE rather than ABSOLUTE."

- SOCIAL CONTRACT ORIENTATION (stage 5)
- KOHLBERG
- POSTCONVENTIONAL

37

"right and wrong is determined by ABSTRACT ETHICAL PRINCIPLES that emphasize JUSTICE AND JUSTICE"

- INDIVIDUAL PRINCIPLES AND CONSCIENCE ORIENTATION (stage 6)
- KOHLBERG
- CONVENTIONAL

38

"Piaget's term for the awareness that PHYSICAL QUANTITIES remain CONSTANT in spite of CHANGES in their SHAPE or appearance." (beaker of water)

- CONSERVATION

39

"the tendency to focus on just ONE FEATURE of a problem, neglecting other important aspects" ( concentrate on height of water and not height)

- CENTRATION

40

"inability to envision reversibility in action" (for instance, in grappling with the conservation of water, they don't think about what would happen if water were poured back from the tall beaker into the original beaker)

- IRREVERSIBILITY

41

PREOPERATIONAL PERIOD not yet mastered the principle of... (4)

- CONSERVATION
- CENTRATION
- IRREVERSIBILITY
- EGOCENTRISM
- HIERARCHICAL CLASSIFICATION

42

"a RAPID DECLINE in COGNITIVE FUNCTION and COPING ability that occurs 1 to 5 years before death." (letting go)

- TERMINAL DROP

43

Particularly harmful TERATOGENS include...(3)

- SEDATIVES
- NARCOTICS
- COCAINE

44

.. and the .. play a role in influencing the baby's TEMPERAMENT.

- GENES
- ENVIRONMENT

45

What Harlowe showed is that there is a .. .. for .. .. in ..

- BIOLOGICAL BASIS
- EMOTIONAL ATTACHMENT
- MAMMALS

46

Patterns of attachment (4)

- SECURE
- ANXIOUS-AMBIVALENT
- AVOIDANT
- DISORGANIZED-DISORIENTED

47

"The theory is based on the idea that humans PROCESS the INFORMATION they receive, rather than merely responding to stimuli."

- INFORMATION-PROCESSING MODEL

48

"programmed patterns of BEHAVIOR."

- SCRIPT

49

FLUID INTELLIGENCE involves .. .. ABILITY, .. .., and SPEED OF .. ..

- REASONING ABILITY
- MEMORY CAPACITY
- INFORMATION PROCESSING

50

CRYSTALLIZED INTELLIGENCE involves the ABILITY TO APPLY . .. .. and .. in .. ..

- ACQUIRED KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS
- PROBLEM SOLVING

51

PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS of AGING (2)

- TOLL ON SPEED
- MEMORY DECREASE (varies b/w ppl)

52

PHYSICAL EFFECTS of AGING (7)

- HAIR THINS OUT AND BECOMES GREY
- PROPORTION OF BODY FAT INCREASES
- MUSCLE TISSUE DECREASES
- VISION DECLINES
- HEARING DECLINES
- WOMEN: MENOPAUSE
- LOSS OF BRAIN TISSUE

53

MALE GENDER STEREOTYPE (2)

- COMPETENT
- RATIONAL

54

FEMALE GENDER STEREOTYPE (5)

- DEPENDENT
- EMOTIONAL
- IRRATIONAL
- SUBMISSIVE
- TALKATIVE

55

GENDER DIFFERENCES in COGNITION: FEMALE (4)

- BETTER VERBAL SKILLS
- ACCESS TO LONG TERM INFORMATION
- COMPLEX PROSE
- LARGER CORPUS CALLOSUM

56

GENDER DIFFERENCES in COGNITION: MALE (3)

- BETTER MATHEMATICAL ABILITY
- BETTER VISUAL-SPATIAL ABILITY
- MORE CEREBRAL SPECIALIZATION

57

GENDER DIFFERENCES in PERSONALITY: FEMALE (4)

- EXTROVERSION
- AGREEABLENESS
- CONSCIENTIOUSNESS
- NEUROTICISM

58

GENDER DIFFERENCES in PERSONALITY (3)

- PHYSICAL AGGRESSIVENESS
- LESS SENSITIVE TO NONVERBAL CUES
- MORE SEXUALLY ACTIVE

59

(3) KEY PROCESSES in the development of GENDER ROLES:

- OPERANT CONDITIONING
- OBSERVATIONAL BEHAVIOR
- SELF-SOCIALIZATION (i am a girl therefore i should act this way)

60

(GENDER ROLES)OPERANT CONDITIONING examples (2):

- BIG BOYS DON'T CRY (reinforcing behavior that is gender-appropriate)
- ACT LIKE A MAN

61

PRENATAL BRAIN GROWTH (5)

- FORMATION OF BRAIN CELLS
- CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES (5th week)
- BRAIN IS FULLY DEVELOPED BUT NOT FULL SIZE (2nd trimester)
- SYNAPSES FORM
- MYELINATION OF NEURONS (6 months onward)

62

CHILDHOOD BRAIN GROWTH (4)

- MORE SYNAPSES
- MORE MYELINATION
- PRUNING
- PREFRONTAL CORTEX

63

ADULTHOOD onwards (BRAIN CHANGES) (2)

- BRAIN MASS GRADUALLY DECREASES
- NEUROGENESIS BECOMES SLOWER

64

PRENATAL BRAIN GROWTH (5)

- FORMATION OF BRAIN CELLS
- CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES (5th week)
- BRAIN IS FULLY DEVELOPED BUT NOT FULL SIZE (2nd trimester)
- SYNAPSES FORM
- MYELINATION OF NEURONS (6 months onward)

65

CHILDHOOD BRAIN GROWTH (4)

- MORE SYNAPSES
- MORE MYELINATION
- PRUNING
- PREFRONTAL CORTEX

66

ADULTHOOD onwards (BRAIN CHANGES) (2)

- BRAIN MASS GRADUALLY DECREASES
- NEUROGENESIS BECOMES SLOWER