11.1 Personality and Behavior: Approaches and Measurement Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology > 11.1 Personality and Behavior: Approaches and Measurement > Flashcards

Flashcards in 11.1 Personality and Behavior: Approaches and Measurement Deck (20):
1

personality

- an individual’s consistent patterns of feeling, thinking, and behaving

2

phrenology

- the idea that we could measure personality by assessing the patterns of bumps on people‘s skulls

3

somatology

- based on the idea that we could determine personality from people‘s body types

4

physiognomy

- the idea that it is possible to assess personality from facial characteristics

5

traits

- relatively enduring characteristics that influence our behavior across many situations

6

authoritarianism

- a cluster of traits including conventionalism, superstition, toughness, and exaggerated concerns with sexuality

7

individualism

- the tendency to focus on oneself and one‘s personal goals; collectivism is the tendency to focus on one‘s relations with others

8

internal vs external locus of control

- in comparison to those with an external locus of control, people with an internal locus of control are more likely to believe that life events are due largely to their own efforts and personal characteristics

9

need for cognition

- the extent to which people engage in and enjoy effortful cognitive activities

10

regulatory focus

- refers to differences in the motivations that energize behavior, varying from apromotion orientation (seeking out new opportunities) to aprevention orientation (avoiding negative outcomes)

11

self-consciousness

- the tendency to introspect and examine one‘s inner self and feelings

12

self-esteem

- high self-esteem means having a positive attitude toward oneself and one‘s capabilities.

13

sensation seeking

- the motivation to engage in extreme and risky behaviors

14

five-factor (big five) model of personality

- there are five fundamental underlying trait dimensions that are stable across time, cross-culturally shared, and explain a substantial proportion of behavior: agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, neuroticism, and openness to experience

15

Barnum effect

- the observation that people tend to believe in descriptions of their personality that supposedly are descriptive of them but could in fact describe almost anyone

16

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)

- a test used around the world to identify personality and psychological disorders

17

projective measures

- measures of personality in which unstructured stimuli, such as ink blots, drawings of social situations, or incomplete sentences, are shown to participants, who are asked to freely list what comes to mind as they think about the stimuli

18

Rorschach Inkblot Test

- a projective measure of personality in which the respondent indicates his or her thoughts about a series of 10 symmetrical inkblots

19

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

- a projective measure of personality in which the respondent is asked to create stories about sketches of ambiguous situations, most of them of people, either alone or with others

20

trait theories of leadership

- theories based on the idea that some people are simply "natural leaders" because they possess personality characteristics that make them effective

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