Flashcards in 11.2 Variations In Sexual Behaviour Deck (26):
____ ____ is how we identify sexually and what we call ourselves.
The biological differences between males and females are ___ ____, where as the differences that result from people thinking about themselves as male or female are ____ ____.
sex differences : gender differences
Gender identity is a ____ characteristic.
In most cases people accept the gender identity that matches their ____ ____, which matches the way they were reared.
Some people are dissatisfied with their ____ ____, and many would describe themselves as being masculine in some ways and feminine and others.
Some people have anatomies intermediate between male and female. Individuals who appear to be a mixture of male and female are referred to as ____.
Some people are born with an XX chromosome pattern but an ___ ____ that translocated from the fathers Y chromosome on to another chromosome.
Despite the XX chromosomes, they have either an ovary and a testis, or two testes, or a ____ of testis and ovary tissue on each side.
Other people develop an intermediate appearance because of an ____ hormone pattern.
The most common cause of this condition is ____ ____ ____ (CAH), meaning overdevelopment of the adrenal glands from birth.
congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Ordinarily, the adrenal gland has a negative feedback relationship with the pituitary gland. The pituitary secretes ____ ____ (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal gland.
____, one of the hormones from the adrenal gland, feeds back to decrease the release of ACTH.
In a genetic male, the extra testosterone causes no apparent difficulty. However, genetic females with this condition develop various degrees of ____ of the external genitals.
People whose sexual development is intermediate are called ____. An estimated 1 child in 100 in the United States is born with some degree of genital ambiguity, and 1 in 2000 has enough ambiguity to make its male or female status uncertain.
For many years, the policy was to raise most intersexed people as ____, on the assumption that surgery could make them look like normal girls, and they would develop behaviours corresponding to the way they were reared.
Studies have found the girls exposed to the largest amount of testosterone in early development showed the largest preference for ____ ____.
Certain individuals with an XY chromosome pattern have the genital appearance of a female. This condition is known as ____ ____, or ____ ____.
androgen insensitivity, or testicular feminisation
Although such individuals produce normal amounts of androgens (including testosterone), they lack the receptor that enables androgen to activate __________. Consequently, the cells are insensitive to androgens, and development proceeds as if the level of testosterone and similar hormones was low.
genes in a cells nucleus
Some genetic males are born with a very small penis because of a condition called ____ ____, a deficit of pelvis development. Despite their genital anatomy, they had typical male levels of testosterone in prenatal development.
Of those with cloacal exstrophy who are reared as girls, all develop typical ____ interests, many or most eventually demand reassignment as males, and nearly all develop sexual attraction towards women, not mean.
A surgically created or lengthened vagina maybe satisfactory to a male partner, but it provides no ____ to the woman and requires almost daily attention to prevent it from scarring over.
Many with cloacal exstrophy report no ____ ____ ever, little or no interest in sex, and little or no romantic attraction to mean.
What accounts for differences in ____ ____? Many influences appear to be important, including genetics, prenatal environment, and as-yet unidentified aspects of experience.
Where's most ____ discover the sexual orientation early, many woman a slower.
Feminine-type behaviours in childhood and adolescence correlate strongly with ____ ____ in adulthood for mean, but early masculine-type behaviours are poor predictors of sexual orientation in women.