1.12.2018 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1.12.2018 Deck (14):
1

taxonomy vs. phylogenetics

taxonomy alone doesn’t reveal now groups are related to each other from an evolutionary standpoint

2

phylogeny

evolutionary history of a species or group one related species

3

molecular analysis

looking at the genetic code for differences
organism with fewer differences are closely related

4

relatedness

any tree is presented as a hypothesis or potential answer to the inter-relatedness of organisms
constantly changing

5

phylogenetics

uses organism characters to develop testable hypotheses about probable ancestor-descendant relationships
*each hypothesis is represented by a different tree*

6

character

anything quantifiable about an organism

7

cladogram

type of phylogenetic tree
shows relationship between groups, the length of the branches have no meaning

8

phylogram

shows evolutionary history of species, the length of the branches are proportional to time

9

outgroup

any organism that is distantly related to the group of interest

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ingroup

organisms of interest

11

sister groups

groups that are more closely related to each other than any other group

12

constructing phylogenies

to infer phylogenies systematists gather information about morphologies genes and biochemistry of living organisms

13

morphology

size, shape and structure of organisms or parts of organisms (descriptive)

14

homology

phenotypic morphological or genetic similarities due to shared ancestry