1136 Definitions Flashcards Preview

Civics > 1136 Definitions > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1136 Definitions Deck (48):
1

practice of using appointments to reward service

patronage

2

preliminary election held to select candidates and/or delegates to party conventions

direct primary

3

military advisers to the President

Joint Chiefs of Staff

4

chief law officer of the U.S.

Attorney General

5

presidential candidate supported mainly by his own state

favorite son

6

civilian head of armed forces

Secretary of Defense

7

"fourth branch of government"

regulatory commissions

8

statement of principles adopted by a political party

Platform

9

Group that performs a variety of tasks for the President

Executive Office of the President

10

Civil aeronautics board
Federal communications commission
Federal trade commission
Interstate commerce commission
National labor relations board
Securities and exchange commission

Regulatory commissions

11

Council of economic advisers
National security council
Office of management and budget
White House office

EOP
or
Executive Office of the President

12

Secretary of Defense
Secretary of State
Secretary of Agriculture
Attorney General

Cabinet positions

13

practice of following precedents established in previous court cases

stare decisis
___________

14

highest civil government authority

state

15

minor criminal offense

misdemeanor

16

serious criminal offense

felony

17

statutory law dealing with offenses against society

criminal law

18

private law regulating relationships between private citizens or organizations

civil law

19

hears cases for the first time

court of first instance

20

hears appeals of lower court decisions

appellate court

21

limiting of certain cases to federal court jurisdiction

exclusive jurisdiction

22

sharing of jurisdiction between state and federal courts

concurrent jurisdiction

23

any court order directing a person to do or not do some act

writ

24

Supreme Court order requesting records from a lower court

writ of certiorari
_______

25

suits between parties from different states involving more than $50,000

diversity cases

26

"with all judges present"

en banc
______

27

agrees with the conclusion, but not necessarily the reasoning, of the majority

concurring opinion

28

disagrees with the majority opinion

dissenting opinion

29

statement of opinion going beyond the conclusions necessary to support the decision

obiter dictum
__________

30

body of judge-made law involving application of precedents

common law

31

written rules of conduct enacted by a legislative body

statutory law

32

regulations made by agencies

administrative law

33

written code of rules and procedures applied by the court

civil law

34

preventative justice to enforce a legal duty or to prevent a rights violation

equity law

35

argument pertaining to the case before the Court and written by a "friend of the court"

amicus curiae brief
_______________

36

disagrees with the opinion of the majority of the Supreme Court justices

dissenting opinion

37

agrees with the conclusion of the majority of the Supreme Court justices

concurring opinion

38

document containing a summary of the issues, laws pertaining to the case, and arguments supporting the party's position

brief

39

handle preliminary matters

commissioners

40

perform routine court jobs

clerks, bailiffs, stenographers, court reporters, probation officers

41

maintain order, guard prisoners, etc.

U.S. marshalls

42

are under the supervision of the Attorney General

U.S. District Attorneys

43

order requiring appearance in court of a detained person

writ of habeas corpus
____________

44

order requiring a public official to perform some duty

writ of mandamus
________

45

order requiring or preventing a certain action

writ of injunction

46

is commander of the armed forces
is elected by the electoral college
exercises veto of legislative acts
may call special sessions of or adjourn Congress
is the representative of U.S. to rest of world
is provided for in the Constitution

President

47

casts tie-breaking vote in Senate
is elected by the electoral college
presides over the Senate
is provided for in the Constitution

Vice-President

48

is appointed by the President
is interpreter of the Constitution
writes opinions
operation, composition, and organization controlled by Congress
determines constitutionality of legislative acts
oversees administration of justice by federal courts
has both original and appellate jurisdiction
holds office during "good behavior"
is provided for in the Constitution

Supreme Court