Biology END OF YEAR EXAM Revision Flashcards Preview

Year 9 End Of Year Exam Revision > Biology END OF YEAR EXAM Revision > Flashcards

Flashcards in Biology END OF YEAR EXAM Revision Deck (107)
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1
Q

Eyepiece

A

What you look through in a microscope

2
Q

Stage

A

The platform where the slide is placed on a microscope

3
Q

Low power objective lens

A

Small lens with low magnifying power

4
Q

High power objective lens

A

Large lens with high magnifying power

5
Q

Stage clips

A

Metal clips that hold a slide securely onto the stage on a microscope

6
Q

Inclination joint

A

An adjustable joint that lets the arm tilt at various angles on a microscope

7
Q

What are the two types of focus wheel on a microscope

A

Fine focus wheel, coarse focus wheel

8
Q

Diaphragm (microscope)

A

An adjustable opening under the stage allowing different amounts of light onto the stage

9
Q

Two types of microscope

A

Light microscope, electron microscope

10
Q

Ribosome function

A

Make proteins

11
Q

Cytoplasm is where…

A

…chemical reactions take place

12
Q

Nucleus contains…

A

DNA

13
Q

Mitochondria is where…

A

…respiration takes place

14
Q

Cell membrane function

A

Controls what goes in and out of the cell

15
Q

Chloroplast function

A

Photosynthesis

16
Q

Cell wall function

A

Surrounds and protects the cell

17
Q

Red blood cell function

A

Carry oxygen around the body

18
Q

Red blood cell adaptations

A

Contains haemoglobin, no nucleus, large surface area

19
Q

White blood cell function

A

Part of the immune system, fights diseases

20
Q

White blood cell adaptation

A

Irregular shape to squeeze through blood vessels

21
Q

Skin cell function

A

Creates a barrier between the body and the rest of the world

22
Q

Skin cell adaptation

A

Creates keratin

23
Q

Magnification =

A

Measured size
——————-
Actual size

24
Q

Actual size =

A

Measured size
——————-
Magnification

25
Q

Features of an animal cell

A

Nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, mitochondria, ribosomes

26
Q

Features of a plant cell

A

Nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, mitochondria, ribosomes, cell wall, vacuole

27
Q

Features of a bacteria cell

A

Cytoplasm, cell membrane, mitochondria, ribosomes, cell wall, slime capsule, flagella, plasmids, genetic material (not in nucleus), pili

28
Q

Slime capsule function

A

Protects bacteria against antibiotics

29
Q

Flagella function

A

Helps with movement

30
Q

Plasmid function

A

Contains DNA

31
Q

Pili function

A

Helps the cell to attach to other things

32
Q

Catalyst

A

Speeds up chemical reactions

33
Q

Enzyme

A

Biological catalyst

34
Q

Salivary gland

A

Produces saliva, contains enzymes

35
Q

Oesophagus

A

Carries food from mouth to stomach

36
Q

Stomach

A

Churns food

37
Q

Pancreas

A

Produces enzymes

38
Q

Liver

A

Helps break down fats and old blood cells

39
Q

Gallbladder

A

Produces bile

40
Q

Small Intestine

A

Absorbs small food particles

41
Q

Large intestine

A

Absorbs excess water

42
Q

Physical digestion

A

Physically breaking down food eg. Teeth, stomach

43
Q

Chemical digestion

A

Breaking down food with enzymes

44
Q

Enzymes for digesting proteins

A

Protease

45
Q

Enzyme for digesting fats and lipids

A

Lipase

46
Q

Enzyme for digesting starch

A

Amalayse

47
Q

Protease + Protein ——>

A

Amino Acids

48
Q

Lipase + Fats/Lipids ——>

A

Fatty acid + glycerol

49
Q

Amylase + starch ——>

A

Glucose

50
Q

Rate of reaction

A

Amount of product produced in a certain amount of time

51
Q

During chemical digestion, if the temperature is increased…

A

…so will the rate of reaction until optimum temperature is reached

52
Q

Diffusion

A

When particles in a high concentration move to an area of low concentration

53
Q

Osmosis

A

The diffusion of water molecules through a partially permeable membrane

54
Q

Active transport

A

When particles move from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration, against a concentration gradient. This requires energy.

55
Q

Order of the stages of mitosis

A

Prophase, anaphase, metaphase, telophase, cytokinesis

56
Q

Prophase

A

Nucleus starts to break down and spindle fibres appear

57
Q

Metaphase

A

The chromosomes are lined up on the spindle fibres across the middle of the cell

58
Q

Anaphase

A

The chromosome copies are separated and moved to either end of the cell on the spindle fibres

59
Q

Telophase

A

A membrane forms around each set of chromosomes to form nuclei

60
Q

Cytokinesis

A

Cell surface membrane forms and cell separates

61
Q

Phase before mitosis

A

Interphase

62
Q

Interphase

A

Diploid cell has two sets of chromosomes, which are copied forming X shapes

63
Q

Cell formed in mitosis

A

Daughter cell

64
Q

Cell at the start of mitosis

A

Parent cell

65
Q

Babies are measured in…

A

Length, mass and head circumference

66
Q

Babies growth is monitored on…

A

…percentile curves

67
Q

25% of babies have a mass below the ??? percentile curve

A

25th percentile curve

68
Q

Normal baby grown follows a…

A

…percentile curve

69
Q

Animals develop from…

A

…a single cell

70
Q

Mitosis results in…

A

…two identical cells

71
Q

Cells can ??? to become specialised

A

Differentiate

72
Q

Fat cell adaptations

A

Cytoplasm filled with fat droplets, stores fat until it is needed

73
Q

Muscle cell adaptations

A

Has contractile proteins, allows muscles to contract

74
Q

Nerve cell adaptations

A

Carries electrical impulses, connects to other neurones

75
Q

How do cells specialise?

A

Stem cells divide by mitosis, then elongate and differentiate

76
Q

Meristems

A

Tissue in plants containing stem cells, usually in the roots of the plants

77
Q

Root hair cell adaptations

A

Large surface area, many tiny hairs, lots of mitochondria

78
Q

Stem cells in plants features

A

Divide repeatedly over a long period of time, found in meristems, can differentiate into any cell

79
Q

Stem cells in animals features

A

When a fertilised egg cell divides, it contains embryonic stem cell, which can produce any kind of specialised cell. When an animal is fully developed, it can only produce the type of specialised cell in the tissue around it. This is for growth and repair.

80
Q

Advantages of using stem cells for medical research

A

Treating diabetes, bone marrow transplants to treat diseases of the blood

81
Q

Disadvantages of using stem cells for medical research

A

Can cause cancer, can be killed by the recipients immune system, ethical issues about using stem cells

82
Q

Uses of stem cells

A

Treating patients with untreatable conditions, growing organs for transplants, medical research

83
Q

Homeostasis

A

The body maintaining balance within its internal environment when faced with external changes

84
Q

Enzymes will ??? if the temperature is too hot or cold

A

Denature

85
Q

The skins role in homeostasis

A

Controls body temperature with hairs and sweat

86
Q

The kidneys role in homeostasis

A

Gets rid of excess water and ions in urine

87
Q

The pancreas’ role in homeostasis

A

Keeps body sugar levels constant

88
Q

The lungs role in homeostasis

A

Releases excess water and carbon dioxide

89
Q

Stimuli

A

Changes in the internal or external environment

90
Q

Receptor

A

Cells that detect stimuli

91
Q

Coordination centres…

A

…organise messages that come in from receptors

92
Q

Reflex actions

A

Automatic actions that do not require thought

93
Q

Order of the stages of a reflex action

A

Stimulus —> Receptor —> Sensory Neurone —> Central Nervous System —> Motor Neurone —> Effector —> Response

94
Q

Electrical impulses ??? across the ??? during a reflex action

A

Diffuse, synapse

95
Q

3 main parts of the brain

A

Cerebrum, cerebellum, medulla oblongata

96
Q

The cerebrum has two ??? separates by the ???

A

Hemispheres (left and right), corpus callosum

97
Q

Corpus callosum role

A

Hold cerebrum hemispheres together, conducts impulses from one side of the brain to the other

98
Q

Cerebellum role

A

Controls movement, muscle tone, posture and balance

99
Q

Medulla Oblongata

A

Controls vomiting, coughing, sneezing, swallowing, heat rate, breathing and blood pressure

100
Q

Retina

A

Photoreceptive layer of the eye

101
Q

Optic nerve

A

Transmits impulses to the brain

102
Q

Iris

A

Controls size of the pupil

103
Q

Cornea

A

Where the most refraction of light occurs

104
Q

Lens

A

Changes it’s shape to focus

105
Q

Pupil gets ??? In dim light and ??? in bright light

A

Bigger, smaller

106
Q

Accommodating

A

Using the eye to focus light rays onto the retina

107
Q

Which two places does the light react in our eyes

A

Cornea then the lens