Flashcards in 1.1.5 Biological Debate Deck (54):
What do neuroscientists study?
The brain and its impact on behaviour and cognitive functions
What has modern technology allowed with regard to neuroscience?
Allowed neuroscientists to find out more about the brain
What is the debate surrounding neuroscience?
Wether the knowledge it produces is being used ethically
Where did crick and Koch (1998) claim the seat of consciousness was?
The claustrum - a sheet of neurons found at the centre of the brain
How does the seat of consciousness work?
Like a conductor in an orchestra it combines info from different brain regions
What evidence is there for the claustrum being seat of consciousness?
Koubeissi et al 2014 research on 54 year old woman with severe epilepsy
During the brain test what happened?
Electrode placed near her claustrum was stimulated causing her to stop responding
What happened when stimulation of the electrode stopped?
She regained consciousness with no recollection of the event
What happened when stimulated was repeated?
The same thing - she lost consciousness
How could the research into seat of consciousness be beneficial?
•Alternative to anaesthetic
•Potential treatment for comas
• removing life support
• diagnosis for locked in patients
How could the research into the seat of consciousness be considered unethical?
• based on 1 woman with abnormal brain function
• doctor pressure forcing people to turn off life support
How might the research into the seat of consciousness save or cost the uk economy?
Removing life support for patients you know won't recover could save the nhs a lot of money
How can neuroscience enhance neurological function?
Improve abilities of normal individuals in complex academic tasks
What are TDCS?
Trans directional current stimulation
What do TDCS do?
Pass small electric current across specific brain regions
What did Kadosh et al find about TDCS?
Led to improvement in problem solving, mathematical, language, memory and attention abilities
Where can TDCS kits be bought?
£100 online sites such as Amazon
Why might neuroenhancement be considered beneficial?
Improve and aid ability of students
People will achieve more and work better
Why might neuroenhancement be considered unethical?
•not everyone can afford it
•cheating and achieving better than others
•dishonesty not own abilities
•feel forced to use it
What is the cost of depression alone in 2001? (Thomal and Morris)
What do neuroscientists link mental illness to?
What should treatment of mental illness therefore do?
aim to correct biological imbalances through drug therapy
Why might treating those with mental illness with drug therapy be considered beneficial?
•Helps them function better in society
•Take part in other forms of therapy once balanced
•Improved their quality of life
Why might treating patients with mental illness with drug therapy be considered unethical?
• people unable to give full informed consent
• forced treatment of sectioned patients
• side effects
How could research into treatment of mental illness cost or save the uk economy?
Costs a lot to administer drugs
Save money - depression alone costed £9.1 billion in 2001
What is the role of any criminal justice system?
Rehabilitation of offenders to prevent further criminal behaviour
Where do some neuroscientists believe criminal behaviour stems from?
Abnormal neurotransmitter levels or brain activity
If criminal behaviour stems from abnormal brain activity what can be used to treat criminals?
What did cherek et al investigate?
Levels of impulsivity and aggression in males with history of conduct disorder and criminal behaviour
What happens in chereks investigation?
Hale given placebo
Half given SSRI paroxetine
Those receiving paroxetine showed significant decrease in impulsive response and aggression
Why might treating criminals with drug therapy be considered beneficial?
Prevent further crime making safer society
Improve life of prisoners
Why might treating prisoners be unethical?
Feeling they have little choice - prisoners
How could research into treating criminals save or cost the uk economy?
Save criminal justice system money
Costs £40,000 to imprison someone for a year
What is neuromarketing? Give an example
Using neuroscience in advertising and marketing e.g eye tracking techniques to provide evidence o what catches a persons eye when looking at adverts or shopping
When did sands research use neuromarketing and what was the result?
Used when devising Volkswagen advert which upped traffic to site by half and led to successful sales year
Why might neuromarketing be considered beneficial?
Encouraging people to spend improves the economy
Why might neuromarketing be considered unethical?
Encouraging people to spend money they don't have
How might neuromarketing save or cost the U.K. Economy?
Encouraging people to spend improves the economy
(Criminals) raine designed an enrichment programme based on what?
Research into brain dysfunction in criminals
(Criminals) who were the sample in Raines research?
83 children in Mauritius
(Criminals) children from the age of 3 were educated in a special facility with a staff child ratio of what?
(Criminals) raine the programme focused upon what?
(Criminals) raine - assessment at age 17 showed what?
Less antisocial behaviour than controls
(Criminals) Raine - assessment at age 23 showed less what than controls?
(Criminals) Raines research suggests crime can be prevented by what?
(Criminals) how does Raines research challenge free will?
Questions the accountability of murderers for their actions
(Criminals) measures could be taken to prevent what?
(Criminals) there is an ethical issue of neuroscientists intervening with brain surgery on who?
Children who haven't committed a crime yet
(Criminals) Fontaine - what is more effective than punishment?
(Alzheimer's) why is there a growing urgency to understand more about Alzheimer's?
Increasing ageing population
(Alzheimer's) the world wide Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging was set up to do what?
Predict and monitor the disease
Sharing data with the rest of the world using PET and MRI scans
(Alzheimer's) the new info could do what?
Be used to treat, prevent and slow Alzheimer's
(Alzheimer's) what economic benefit could the research have?
Saving billions on care