1.17.2018 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1.17.2018 Deck (12):
1

another name for homologous traits

homology

2

homologous traits

traits shared by organisms because they were inherited from a common ancestor

3

another name for analogous traits

homoplasy

4

analogous traits

superficially similar traits but they have different evolutionary origins (you must build a phylogeny to see it)

5

3 common misconceptions

1. evolution is not a ladder but a tree
2. just because we tend to read phylogenies from left to right there is no correlation with level of advancement
3. for any speciation on a phylogeny the choice of which lineage goes to the right or the left is arbitrary

6

polytomy

unresolved pattern of divergence (sister groups are pairs these are 3)

7

cladistics

phylogenetic approach that classifies organisms into clades (monophyletic group)

8

clade or monophyletic group

includes the ancestor and ALL its descendants

9

shared ancestral character

homology

10

symamorphy

shared derived character

11

paraphyletic group

contains ancestor and some (but not all) of its descendants

12

polyphyletic group

group of taxa that excludes the common ancestor and other related taxa