1.2: Carbohydrates and monosaccharides COPY Flashcards Preview

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1

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are:

1. Carbon molecules (carbon)

combined with

2. Water (hydrate)

2

Carbohydrates are carbon molecules (carbon) combined with water (hydrate).

Some carbohydrate molecules are small, while others are large.

Carbon atoms have an unusual feature.

Carbon atoms very readily form bonds with other carbon atoms.

This allows what?

 

This allows a sequence of carbon atoms of various lengths to be built up

 

3

Carbohydrates are carbon molecules (carbon) combined with water (hydrate).

Some carbohydrate molecules are small, while others are large.

Carbon atoms have an unusual feature.

Carbon atoms very readily form bonds with other carbon atoms.

This allows a sequence of carbon atoms of various lengths to be built up.

These form what?

These form a 'backbone' along which other atoms can be attached

 

4

Carbohydrates are carbon molecules (carbon) combined with water (hydrate).

Some carbohydrate molecules are small, while others are large.

Carbon atoms have an unusual feature.

Carbon atoms very readily form bonds with other carbon atoms.

This allows a sequence of carbon atoms of various lengths to be built up.

These form a 'backbone' along which other atoms can be attached.

This permits what?

This permits a large number of different:

1. Types

2. Sizes

of molecules, all based on carbon

 

5

Carbohydrates are carbon molecules (carbon) combined with water (hydrate).

Some carbohydrate molecules are small, while others are large.

Carbon atoms have an unusual feature.

Carbon atoms very readily form bonds with other carbon atoms.

This allows a sequence of carbon atoms of various lengths to be built up.

These form a 'backbone' along which other atoms can be attached.

This permits a large number of different types and sizes of molecules, all based on carbon.

The variety of life that exists on Earth is a consequence of what?

 

The variety of life that exists on Earth is a consequence of living organisms being based on the versatile carbon atom

 

6

Organic molecules

Organic molecules are molecules containing carbon

 

7

The variety of life that exists on Earth is a consequence of living organisms being based on the versatile carbon atom.

Carbon containing molecules are known as organic molecules.

In living organisms, there are relatively few what?

 

In living organisms, there are relatively few other atoms that attach to carbon

 

8

The variety of life that exists on Earth is a consequence of living organisms being based on the versatile carbon atom.

Carbon containing molecules are known as organic molecules.

In living organisms, there are relatively few other atoms that attach to carbon.

Life is therefore what?

Life is therefore based on a small number of chemical elements

9

In Biology, certain prefixes are commonly used to indicate numbers.

There are 2 systems, one based on what and the other on what?

There are 2 systems:

1. One based on Latin

2. The other on Greek

10

In Biology, certain prefixes are commonly used to indicate numbers.

There are 2 systems, one based on Latin and the other on Greek.

The Greek terms which are used when referring to chemicals are: Mono = ?

 

Mono = One

11

In Biology, certain prefixes are commonly used to indicate numbers.

There are 2 systems, one based on Latin and the other on Greek.

The Greek terms which are used when referring to chemicals are: Di = ?

 

Di = 2

12

In Biology, certain prefixes are commonly used to indicate numbers.

There are 2 systems, one based on Latin and the other on Greek.

The Greek terms which are used when referring to chemicals are: Tri = ?

 

Tri = 3

13

In Biology, certain prefixes are commonly used to indicate numbers.

There are 2 systems, one based on Latin and the other on Greek.

The Greek terms which are used when referring to chemicals are: Tetra = ?

 

Tetra = 4

14

In Biology, certain prefixes are commonly used to indicate numbers.

There are 2 systems, one based on Latin and the other on Greek.

The Greek terms which are used when referring to chemicals are: Penta = ?

 

Penta = 5

15

In Biology, certain prefixes are commonly used to indicate numbers.

There are 2 systems, one based on Latin and the other on Greek.

The Greek terms which are used when referring to chemicals are: Hexa = ?

 

Hexa = 6

16

In Biology, certain prefixes are commonly used to indicate numbers.

There are 2 systems, one based on Latin and the other on Greek.

The Greek terms which are used when referring to chemicals are: Poly = ?

 

Poly = Many

17

Many organic molecules, including carbohydrates, are made up of what?

 

Many organic molecules, including carbohydrates, are made up of a chain of individual molecules

 

18

Many organic molecules, including carbohydrates, are made up of a chain of individual molecules.

Each of the individual molecules that make up these chains is given the general name what?

 

Each of the individual molecules that make up these chains is given the general name monomer

19

Monomer

A monomer is one of many small molecules that combine to form a larger molecule known as a polymer

20

Polymer

A polymer is a large molecule made up of repeating smaller molecules, monomers

21

Examples of monomers include what?

Examples of monomers include:

1. Monosaccharides

2. Amino acids

3. Nucleotides

22

Many organic molecules, including carbohydrates, are made up of a chain of individual molecules.

Each of the individual molecules that make up these chains is given the general name monomer.

Monomers can join together to form what called polymers?

Monomers can join together to form long chains called polymers

23

Many organic molecules, including carbohydrates, are made up of a chain of individual molecules.

Each of the individual molecules that make up these chains is given the general name monomer.

Monomers can join together to form long chains called polymers.

Biological molecules like carbohydrates and proteins are often what?

Biological molecules like:

1. Carbohydrates

2. Proteins

are often polymers

 

24

Examples of polymers

Examples of polymers are:

1. Carbohydrates

2. Proteins

 

25

Biological molecules like carbohydrates and proteins are often polymers.

These polymers are based on what?

 

These polymers of biological molecules like:

1. Carbohydrates

2. Proteins

are based on a surprisingly small number of chemical elements

 

26

Biological molecules like carbohydrates and proteins are often polymers.

These polymers are based on a surprisingly small number of chemical elements.

Most of these polymers are made up of just what?

 

Most of these polymers of biological molecules like carbohydrates and proteins are made up of just 4 elements:

1. Carbon

2. Hydrogen

3. Oxygen

4. Nitrogen

 

27

In carbohydrates, the basic monomer unit is what?

 

In carbohydrates, the basic monomer unit is a sugar

 

28

In carbohydrates, the basic monomer unit is a sugar, otherwise known as a what?

 

In carbohydrates, the basic monomer unit is a sugar, otherwise known as a saccharide

 

29

In carbohydrates, the basic monomer unit is a sugar, otherwise known as a saccharide.

A single monomer is therefore called what?

 

A single monomer is therefore called a monosaccharide

30

In carbohydrates, the basic monomer unit is a sugar, otherwise known as a saccharide.

A single monomer is therefore called a monosaccharide.

A pair of monosaccharides can be what?

A pair of monosaccharides can be combined to form a disaccharide

31

In carbohydrates, the basic monomer unit is a sugar, otherwise known as a saccharide.

A single monomer is therefore called a monosaccharide.

A pair of monosaccharides can be combined to form a disaccharide.

Monosaccharides can also be what?

Monosaccharides can also be combined in much larger numbers to form polysaccharides

32

Monosaccharides

Monosaccharides are:

1. Sweet-tasting

2. Soluble

substances that have the general formula (CH2O)n, where n can be any number from 3 to 7

33

Examples of monosaccharides include what?

Examples of monosaccharides include:

1. Glucose

2. Galactose

3. Fructose

34

Examples of monosaccharides include glucose, galactose and fructose.

Glucose is a what sugar?

Glucose is a hexose (6-carbon) sugar

 

35

Examples of monosaccharides include glucose, galactose and fructose.

Glucose is a hexose (6-carbon) sugar and has the formula what?

 

Glucose:

1. Is a hexose (6-carbon) sugar

2. Has the formula C6H12O6

 

36

Examples of monosaccharides include glucose, galactose and fructose.

Glucose is a hexose (6-carbon) sugar and has the formula C6H12O6.

However, the atoms of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen can be what?

 

The atoms of:

1. Carbon

2. Hydrogen

3. Oxygen

can be arranged in many different ways

37

Examples of monosaccharides include glucose, galactose and fructose.

Glucose is a hexose (6-carbon) sugar and has the formula C6H12O6.

However, the atoms of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen can be arranged in many different ways.

Example

For example, glucose has 2 isomers:

1. a-glucose

2. B-glucose

38

An example of a disaccharide

An example of a disaccharide is maltose

 

39

All what and some what are what sugars?

1. All monosaccharides

2. Some disaccharides

are reducing sugars

40

All monosaccharides and some disaccharides are reducing sugars.

What is reduction?

Reduction is a chemical reaction involving the gain of:

1. Electrons

Or,

2. Hydrogen

41

All monosaccharides and some disaccharides are reducing sugars.

Reduction is a chemical reaction involving the gain of electrons or hydrogen.

A reducing sugar is therefore a sugar that can do what?

A reducing sugar is therefore a sugar that can donate electrons to (or reduce) another chemical

42

All monosaccharides and some disaccharides are reducing sugars.

Reduction is a chemical reaction involving the gain of electrons or hydrogen.

A reducing sugar is therefore a sugar that can donate electrons to (or reduce) another chemical, in this case Benedict's reagent.

The test for a reducing sugar is therefore known as what?

The test for a reducing sugar is therefore known as the Benedict's test

43

Benedict's reagent

Benedict's reagent is an alkaline solution of copper(II) sulfate

 

44

Benedict's reagent is an alkaline solution of copper(II) sulfate.

When a reducing sugar is heated with Benedict's reagent, it forms what?

 

When a reducing sugar is heated with Benedict's reagent, it forms an insoluble red precipitate of copper(I) oxide

 

45

Benedict's reagent is an alkaline solution of copper(II) sulfate.

When a reducing sugar is heated with Benedict's reagent, it forms an insoluble red precipitate of copper(I) oxide.

The first step in how the test is carried out is to do what?

The first step in how the test is carried out is to add 2cm³ of the food sample to be tested

46

Benedict's reagent is an alkaline solution of copper(II) sulfate.

When a reducing sugar is heated with Benedict's reagent, it forms an insoluble red precipitate of copper(I) oxide.

The first step in how the test is carried out is to add 2cm³ of the food sample to be tested.

If the sample is not already in liquid form, do what?

If the sample is not already in liquid form, first grind it up in water with a:

1. Pestle

2. Mortar

 

47

Benedict's reagent is an alkaline solution of copper(II) sulfate.

When a reducing sugar is heated with Benedict's reagent, it forms an insoluble red precipitate of copper(I) oxide.

The first step in how the test is carried out is to add 2cm³ of the food sample to be tested.

If the sample is not already in liquid form, first grind it up in water with a pestle and mortar.

Add what?

Add an equal volume of Benedict's reagent

 

48

Benedict's reagent is an alkaline solution of copper(II) sulfate.

When a reducing sugar is heated with Benedict's reagent, it forms an insoluble red precipitate of copper(I) oxide.

The first step in how the test is carried out is to add 2cm³ of the food sample to be tested.

If the sample is not already in liquid form, first grind it up in water.

Add an equal volume of Benedict's reagent.

Heat what?

Heat the mixture in a gently boiling water bath for 5 minutes

 

49

If a reducing sugar is present, what colour is formed?

If a reducing sugar is present, an orange-brown colour is formed

 

50

Carbohydrates are carbon molecules (carbon) combined with water (hydrate).

Some carbohydrate molecules are small, while others are large.

Carbon atoms have an unusual feature.

This is that carbon atoms do what?

 

This is that carbon atoms very readily form bonds with other carbon atoms

 

51

Glucose has 2 isomers - a-glucose and B-glucose.

What is the only difference between these 2 isomers?

 

The only difference between these 2 isomers is the position of the -OH group attached to carbon 1

 

52

Glucose has 2 isomers - a-glucose and B-glucose.

The only difference between these 2 isomers is the position of the -OH group attached to carbon 1.

In a-glucose, where is the -OH group attached to carbon 1?

In a-glucose, the -OH group attached to carbon 1 is below the carbon

 

53

Glucose has 2 isomers - a-glucose and B-glucose.

The only difference between these 2 isomers is the position of the -OH group attached to carbon 1.

In B-glucose, where is the -OH group attached to carbon 1?

In B-glucose, the -OH group attached to carbon 1 is above the carbon

 

54

Glucose has 2 isomers - a-glucose and B-glucose.

The only difference between these 2 isomers is the position of the -OH group attached to carbon 1.

In a-glucose, the -OH group attached to carbon 1 is below the carbon.

In B-glucose, the -OH group attached to carbon 1 is above the carbon.

What does this minor structural difference have a major effect on?

This minor structural difference has a major effect on the biological roles of:

1. a-glucose

2. B-glucose