12: Physiology and pharmacology of nausea and vomiting Flashcards Preview

Gastrointestinal Week 3 2016/17 > 12: Physiology and pharmacology of nausea and vomiting > Flashcards

Flashcards in 12: Physiology and pharmacology of nausea and vomiting Deck (20):
1

What is nausea?

The unpleasant urge to vomit

2

What is the medical term for vomiting?

Emesis

3

What is vomiting/emesis?

Forceful expulsion of stomach contents through mouth/nose

4

What muscles contract to produce vomiting?

Abdominal muscles

Diaphragm

5

Retching is the act of (normal / reverse) peristalsis.

reverse

6

What is regurgitation?

Effortless movement of stomach contents back to the mouth without nausea or retching

7

Where is the vomiting centre in the brain?

Medulla

8

Which cranial nerve, found in the ear, is associated with motion sickness vomiting?

Vestibulocochlear nerve CN VIII

9

Which cranial nerve supplies the stomach and sends the signals to trigger vomiting?

Vagus nerve CN X

10

The presence of ___ in the gut can trigger vomiting.

toxins

11

Which cells detect the presence of toxins in the gut?

Enterochromaffin cells

 

12

Which neurotransmitter is released by enterochromaffin cells in response to toxins?

Serotonin (5-HT)

13

Which receptors respond to serotonin (5-HT) to trigger vagal afferent discharge to the CNS?

5 HT receptors

14

What type of nerves produce the motor outputs of the oesophagusstomach and small intestine in vomiting?

Vagal efferents

15

What type of nerves produce the contraction of the abdominal muscles and diaphragm in vomiting?

Somatic motor

16

What signs and symptoms are seen before someone vomits?

Salivation

Sweating

Tachycardia

NAUSEA

17

Severe vomiting will eventually cause dehydration(acidosis / alkalosis) and hypo__aemia.

metabolic alkalosis

hypokalaemia

18

What kind of oesophageal injury can be caused by severe vomiting?

What does it cause?

Mallory-Weiss tear

haemorrhage, haematemesis

19

People who vomit may develop ___ pneumonia.

aspiration

20

Name some types of drug used to treat nausea and vomiting.

Dopamine antagonists (-azines)

H2 antagonists (anti-histamines)

Metoclopramide, domperidone

Serotonin antagonists (--setrons)