What is nausea?
The unpleasant urge to vomit
What is the medical term for vomiting?
What is vomiting/emesis?
Forceful expulsion of stomach contents through mouth/nose
What muscles contract to produce vomiting?
Retching is the act of (normal / reverse) peristalsis.
What is regurgitation?
Effortless movement of stomach contents back to the mouth without nausea or retching
Where is the vomiting centre in the brain?
Which cranial nerve, found in the ear, is associated with motion sickness vomiting?
Vestibulocochlear nerve CN VIII
Which cranial nerve supplies the stomach and sends the signals to trigger vomiting?
Vagus nerve CN X
The presence of ___ in the gut can trigger vomiting.
Which cells detect the presence of toxins in the gut?
Which neurotransmitter is released by enterochromaffin cells in response to toxins?
Which receptors respond to serotonin (5-HT) to trigger vagal afferent discharge to the CNS?
5 HT receptors
What type of nerves produce the motor outputs of the oesophagus, stomach and small intestine in vomiting?
What type of nerves produce the contraction of the abdominal muscles and diaphragm in vomiting?
What signs and symptoms are seen before someone vomits?
Severe vomiting will eventually cause dehydration, (acidosis / alkalosis) and hypo__aemia.
What kind of oesophageal injury can be caused by severe vomiting?
What does it cause?
People who vomit may develop ___ pneumonia.
Name some types of drug used to treat nausea and vomiting.
Dopamine antagonists (-azines)
H2 antagonists (anti-histamines)
Serotonin antagonists (--setrons)