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Flashcards in 125 - Osteoarthritis Deck (30):
1

What disease causes pain over the tibial tuberosity??(Mainly seen in young men)

Osgood-Schlatter's Disease

2

What is spondylolisthesis, which region of the spine is it likely to occur in?

  • It is where 1 vertebra slips anteriorly over the 1 below
  • Most likely to occur in the lumbar region of the spine

2

What are the 4 main classifications of muscle action in a movement?

  1. Agonist
  2. Antagonist
  3. Fixator/ Stabiliser
  4. Synergist

3

What would you see in a supraspinatous tendonitis (pain doing what)?

  • Pain and restriction on active abduction of arm, worsened by resistance
  • Normal and pain-free passive movements

4

What problems can flat footedness cause?

  • Increased susceptibility to Achilles' tendon problems
  • Hallux valgus

5

What are the 3 categories of arthritis based on the number of joints?

  • Mono-arthritis - 1 joint
  • Oligo-arthritis - 2-4 joints
  • Poly-arthritis - More than 4 joints

5

In an arrangement of 2 bones joined by a muscle, what are the 3 components of muscle action?

  • Swing - alters angle of joint
  • Shunt - compresses bones together
  • Spin - twists the mobile bone along its long axis

6

What are some causes of chronic inflammatory poly-arthritis

  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Connective tissue disorders such as SLE
  • Psoriatic arthritis
  • Chronic poly-articular gout, often with tophi

7

What joints are commonly affected by osteoarthritis?

  • DIP joints
  • PIP joints
  • 1st carpo-metacarpal joint
  • Knees
  • Hips

8

What are the 5 major forces that act on bone?

  1. Compression
  2. Tension
  3. Shear
  4. Torsion
  5. Bending

9

What is passive insufficiency of a muscle?

The inability of a muscle to lengthen enough to allow movement

10

What is active insufficiency of a muscle?

The inability of a muscle to contract enough to produce a movement

10

What are the 3 parts of the stance phase?

  1. Heel strike - start, when the heel first hits the ground
  2. Mid-stance -whole foot contact, midway through
  3. Toe-off - toes push off from floor

11

Which joints of the back are commonly affected?

Facet joints of the spine

12

What is the disease called where by the Achilles' tendon avulses a small part of bone off the calcaneous?

Sever's Disease

13

What is an important function of tendons (Achilles) in locomotion, apart from transmitting muscle force to the bone?

They act as springs that store energy and release it to complement the muscle action

15

What are the 4 radiological signs of OA?

  1. Osteophytes
  2. Loss of joint space
  3. Subchondral sclerosis
  4. Subchrondral cysts

16

What is countercurrent movement of a muscle?

A muscle either shortens or lengthens at both ends at the same time

18

What are the signs and symptoms of peri-articular pain?

  • Localised pain to 1 structure
  • Pain only in certain directions of movement
  • Passive movement less restricted and painful than active
  • May have tenderness away from joint line

19

What are the signs and symptoms of articular pain?

  • Pain all around the joint
  • Exacerbated by movement in all directions
  • Active and passive movements equally restricted & painful
  • Joint line tenderness
  • May have swelling within capsule

20

What are the 4 main causes of inflammatory oligo-arthritis?

  1. Psoriatic arthritis
  2. Enteropathic arthritis
  3. Ankylosing spondylosis
  4. Reactive (post-infection)

21

What are the signs and symptoms of an inflammatory arthritis?

  • Worse with over 30 mins rest, worse at night
  • Systemic features - fever malaise etc
  • Redness of overlying skin is rare- septic and gout
  • Pain, swelling and loss of function
  • Joint effusion and synovial thickening
  • Joint restriction and pain with both passive and active movements

22

What is concurrent movement of a muscle?

It is where it lengthens at 1 end while shortening at the other end

23

Why is a spiral femoral fracture significant in children?

It may fracture across the epiphyseal plate, leading to stunting or acceleration of the bone growth

24

What problems can cause "flat footedness"

  • Subtalar joint hypermobility
  • Collapsed medial longitudinal arch

25

What are the 4 major properties of skeletal muscle?

  1. Irritability - respond to nervous stimulus
  2. Contractility - ability to shorten
  3. Extensibility - ability to lengthen
  4. Elasticity - ability to return to normal length after stretching

27

What investigations would be performed for suspected septic arthritis?

  • Aspiration of synovial fluid
  • Blood cultures
  • CXR
  • Urine cultures
  • Inspection of skin
  • C-reactive protein

28

What are the 2 main phases of gait?

  1. Stance phase
  2. Swing phase

29

What are the signs and symptoms of non-inflammatory arthritis?

  • Better with rest
  • No systemic symptoms
  • Never see redness of overlying skin
  • Pain and loss of function
  • May have effusion, but no synovial thickening
  • Joint restriction and pain with active and passive movements

30

What are the 2 main causes of acute inflammatory mono-arthritis?

  1. Septic arthritis
  2. Gout or psudeogout