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Flashcards in 13 Deck (80):
1

energy needs for growth for what? (2)

1. synthesize growing tissues
2. deposited in those tissues

2

satisfactory growth is an indicator of what?

whether energy needs are met

3

2.4- 6.0 kcal/g

energy cost of growth derived from preterm infants/ children recovering from malnutrition

4

energy content of tissue deposition computed from ??

protein and fat deposition

5

EER for 0-2 yr

1. no gender difference
2. no PAL
3. consistent with energy intake of milk- fed infants

6

growth velocity

cm/ mo and g/ mo

7

growth velocity is a sensitive indicator of what?

energy status

8

weight velocity

acute episode of dietary intake

9

height velocity

chronic factors

10

premature infant's energy requirement

20% higher

11

why the premature infant's energy requirement is higher? (2)

1. BMR is higher
2. GI syndrome metabolic mature --> low absorption of fat and CHO from ingested mik

12

infants' basal metabolism primarily in which organ

brain, kidney, liver and heart

13

during transition to extrauterine life, what happens

oxygen consumption increases

14

infants and young children have proportionately high BMR for size, why?

grow and develop rapidly

15

WAT vs BAT

1. WAT --> primary site of energy storage of TG
BAT --> burns fat to produce heat and regulate body temperature
2. WAT: unilocular, 1 chamber for lipid, suppress the action of BAT, inflammatory
BAT: multilocular, increased mitochondria
3

16

UCP1

increase proton leakage cross inter- membrane of BAT and mitochondria --> ATP energy, form of heat

17

if have cold?

stimulate BAT --> trigger proliferation and diffraction of precursor cell to make BAT --> making mitochondria --> increase synthesis of UCP1 --> thermogenic recruitment process

18

BAT is highly vascularized and ?

innervated by CNS

19

what is UCP1 activated by

FFA
uncouples oxidative respiration from ATP production

20

what is the most important component of energy expenditure

BMR

21

What does BMR depend on (3)

1. mass of metabolically active tissue
2. proportion of each tissue
3. contribution of each tissue to energy metabolism

22

what is energy cost of growth based on

rates of weight gain, protein and fat deposition

23

catch- up growth

50th percentile of weight and height
multiply weight by 1.2-1.5 or 1.5-2

24

energy requirements for adolescents (3)

1. maintain health
2. promote optimal growth and maturation
3. support a desirable level of PA

25

during adolescents, what kind of development happens

1. secondary gender characteristics
2. reproductive organs
3. cardiorespiratory and muscular system
4. recreational and occupational activities

26

impact of added sugar on micronutrients ntakes

nutrient dilution effect by nonmilk extrinsic sugars

27

what is the fiber recommendation intake

14g/ 1000 kcal x median energy intake for each age and gender group

28

special concern for fiber recommendation

individuals consuming less than median energy intake need less fiber

29

increased protein intake associates with ??

1. obesity
2. increased weight gain

30

FF infants would like to?

gain both weight and height more rapidly

31

higher IGF-1 in FF infants will have?

anabolic effect on growth, muscle, fat mass development

32

early protein hypothesis

increased early protein --> increased plasma insulin releasing aa acids --> increased IGF-1 --> weight gain and body fat deposition --> increased risk of obesity later on

33

which method used to estimate the protein EAR

factorial method

34

the factorial method includes (3)

1. estimates of maintenance requirement
2. estimates of the rate of protein deposition
3. estimates of the efficiency of protein utilization for growth

35

the factorial method estimates the EAR by (2)

1. mean N intake for N equilibrium (maintenance req)
2. multiplied 1.72 (efficiency of protein utilization for growth)

36

n-3 PUFA provides DHA for what

developing brain and retina

37

what does the AI of linoleic acid and alpha linolenic acid base on

median intake in US and Canadians ppl where deficiency does not exist

38

what is sodium AI in children and adolescents based on

meeting nutrient needs for other essential nutrients
use the median energy intake levels

39

where does Cl set at

at a level equivalent on a molar basis to that of Na

40

AI of Na and Cl increases with age in children and adolescents because of what

increased energy requirement

41

which conditions resulting from K deficiency (3)

1. kidney stones
2. bone demineralizing
3. increased blood pressure

42

K deficiency results from ?

inadequate intake over an extend period of time, including childhood

43

AI of K is based on?

the increased energy not weight

44

citrate and malate

usually conjugate with K food, by counteracting the calcium carbonate release as potassium citrate or malate
could retard kidney disease and Ca contain kidney stone

45

AI of K in adult is based on

average of median energy intake levels

46

AI of vitamin and mineral from adults to infants and children based on

body weight to adjust for metabolic difference related to body weight
(kg of body weight)^0.75

47

method for extrapolating data from data from adults to infants and children

EAR children= EAR adult (FACTOR)

48

FACTOR (weight child/ weight adult) ^ 0.75 (1 + growth factor)

maintenance need and growth requirement

49

growth beyond age 13 for female

assumed to represent a negligible increased requirement

50

why it should be a ratio to the power of 0.75

decided by the difference in organ sizes between adults and children

51

What does AI of sodium in children and adolescents base on

meeting nutrient needs for other essential nutrients

52

vitamin D supplement is required under 3 conditions

1. not drink enough cow's milk
2. <1 L fortified milk
3. breast fed infant

53

vitamin K level from infancy to early childhood

increase AI

54

the reason why vitamin K has increased AI

1. due to the method used to set the AI for older infants
2. increased portion of the diet containing vitamin K- rich fruits and vegetables

55

why newborn has a high risk for vitamin K deficiency

1. poor vitamin K transport across the placenta
2. intestinal flora not established yet

56

what is the risk of decreasing plasma clotting factors at birth

increased risk of bleeding during the first week

57

HDNB

hemorrhagic disease of the newborn

58

late HDNB more related with FF or BF

BF

59

HDNB can be prevented by vitamin K administration in which two ways?

1. phylloquinone i.m.
2. orally after 6hr birth

60

what causes vitamin k deficiency

1. malabsorption syndrome
2. drugs interfering

61

better vitamin K status relates to ?

increased whole body bone mass in healthy pre- pubertal children

62

vitamin K is required for (2)

1. activity of coagulation
2. osteocalcin binding to hydroxyapatite in bone

63

vitamin K cycle

reduced vitamin K is oxidized to epoxide, then reduced again by vitamin K epoxide reductase --> active form

64

if children have celiac disease

use prothrombin time as biomarker of vitamin K status,

65

3 major lines of evidence for Ca needs for the 9-18 age group

1. the factorial approach
2. clinical trials where BMC measured in response to variable Ca intake
3. Ca retention to meet peak bone mineral accretion

66

AI of iron reflects what?

iron intake of infants principally fed human milk

67

major components of iron need for older infant (4)

1. increased hemoglobin mass (increased in blood volume, and increased in [hemoglobin])
2. obligatory: fecal, urinary and dermal losses
3. increased in tissue (nonstorage) Fe
4. increased in storage iron

68

iron for 7-12 months depends on

median total Fe deposition

69

total req of iron for 1-3 years depends on

total req. for absorbed Fe based on the higher estimates derived for males

70

major components of iron need for children9-18 yr

1. basal Fe losses
2. increased in tissue (non- storage iron)
3. increased in hemoglobin mass
4. menstrual iron losses in adolescent girls
5. no provision for the development of Fe stores after early childhood

71

needs for absorbed Fe associated with ?

growth in weight in adolescence

72

girls by age 14

assume almost have started to menstruate
estimates of iron req. should include menstrual losses

73

girl under 14

consider a median menstrual loss

74

EAR of iodine in age 1-8 yr is based on?

weight
positive iodine balance

75

why fluoride is recommended

1. high level of protection against dental caries
2. associated with no known unwanted health effects

76

fluoride extensively documented relationships between?

caries and water [fluoride] and fluoride intake from food

77

what is enamel fluorosis caused by

F ingested during pre- eruptive development of teeth
(erupt not complete and obtain too much F)

78

milder form of fluorosis

after 8yr
white opaque patches "snow capping"

79

when does enamel fluorosis no longer susceptible

after enamel has completed pre- eruptive maturation

80

skeletal fluorosis

development and severity: directly related to level and duration of exposure