13. Classical Psychoanalysis (Freud)*** Flashcards Preview

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What years was Freud producing work?


Note - It wasn't until 1900 he started publishing himself - before that point he was publishing with Breuer.


What is considered the first psychoanalytic essay? What did it discuss?

"A Preliminary Communication" by (Freud and Breuer, 1893, p. 7)

They believed that if symptoms were traced to their origins, and the client was made aware of the meaning of the originating experience, feelings would be discharged in a cathartic way. This would cause the symptoms to disappear.


In which publication was Anna O. (Bertha Pappenheim) first mentioned?

Studies in Hysteria

Freud and Breuer, 1895


What was the difference between Breuer and Freud in their explanations of why feelings seem detached from people?

Freud - because the content and feelings of the pathogenic memory is too disturbing and in conflict with the individual

Breuer - memories were detached due to an altered state of consciousness on the part of the client


In what publication did Freud first outline the topographic model? Include the year.

The Interpretation of Dreams (Freud, 1900)


Describe the Topographic model.

Provide citation.

Unconscious - containing unacceptable ideas and feelings

Preconscious - containing acceptable ideas and feelings that are capable of becoming conscious

Conscious - containing those ideas and feelings in awareness at any particular time

Cite (Freud, 1900).


What are the four main operations at work in a dream?

Provide citation.

Condensation - the dream's tendency to combine several themes into one dream symbol. In this way the symbol can stand for several different thoughts, feelings, wishes, ideas.

Displacement - the dream's tricky transfer of high-impact emotionality onto unimportant material and an emotional cooling to hot material.

Representability or scenification (drama of the dream)

Secondary revision (how we make sense of the dream)

(Freud, 1900)


In short, what are dreams according to Freud?

The disguised fulfillment of conflictual wishes (Freud, 1900).


Explain latent vs. manifest dream content.

The latent dream thought is the true meaning of the dream, and its distorted form, the one which the dreamer experiences, is the manifest dream content.


In short, how does dream interpretation work?

▪Each aspect of the manifest dream content is isolated and associated to
▪Associations help expose the memories, thoughts, and feelings of the dreamer, as experienced through condensation, displacement, and symbolism
▪Eventually, the associations coalesce into the nodal latent dream thoughts


Freud's work on dreams led him to the later understanding of what?

How symptoms form (like slips of the tongue), which are through compromises between the unacceptable thought and feeling, and the defense against it.


Describe Freud's theory of infantile seductionism.

Neuroses are the result of premature introduction of sexuality into the experience of the child. The child’s innocence prevents expression of distress until after the child experiences his or her own sexuality via puberty. The experience of puberty allows these early memories to re-emerge as neurotic symptoms fueled by enormous pressure.

He realized he had an attraction to his own mother reflecting in 1897, and that so many patients couldn't have had premature sexual experiences, meaning they must have been early wishes and longings and not actual experiences.


For a case (maybe on a psychotherapy question), you think it would be helpful to use free association. Briefly explain what it is, and cite when Freud talked about it.

It is used to dismantle a defense.

"Act as though…you were a traveler sitting next to the window of a railway carriage and describing to someone inside the carriage the changing views you see outside"
(Freud, 1913, p. 135).


When does Freud first mention instinctual drive theory? What is important about it?

In "Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality" (Freud, 1905)

It influenced all subsequent theory development.


How does childhood sexuality find expression in adult life?

Through neuroses (disguised childhood sexuality) and perversions (undisguised childhood sexuality)


Compromises are made between drive and impulse. How could this be manifested?

One who is orally dependent or orally aggressive.
One who is anally expulsive or anal retentive.


When talking about the Oedipus Complex, you should you this citation:

(Freud, 1905)


Later on, Freud mentioned the concept of a negative Oedipus complex.

What is that, and what is the citation for this work?

In a positive oedipal complex, the boy still identifies with the father and the feelings of hostility eventually lead to masculinization. This is the positive Oedipal Complex.

For negative, the boy would develop girl-like behavior and an affectionate, feminine attitude toward the father because he desires the same-sex parent, and takes the opposite sex parent as the rival.

(Freud, 1923)


The state of a child's pregenital organizations will significantly impact the course of resolution of the Oedipal Complex.

A child with a strong oral fixation might have what types of issues?

What about a child with an anal fixation?

Dependency issues.

Sexually punctuated by domination and control.


How is the Oedipal complex resolved?

How did he explain this for women?

The notion of castration anxiety. The boy wishes to remove the threat of his father by castrating him, but his fears his father will do this to him that allows the conflict to end as he renounces his oedipal ambitions.

Penis envy in women.

(Freud, 1905)


When did Freud introduce the concept of the superego? What is an important component of this?


The ego-ideal is a an important component. It signifies the internalization of parental values and holds infantile sexuality in-check.


In what publication did Freud introduce his dual-instinct theory?

What does this mean?

"Beyond the Pleasure Principle" (Freud, 1920)

Aggression was given equal status with sexuality as a source of basic instinctual energy that drives mental processes.


What is the death instinct?

Savage destructiveness. In this way, he began to believe that repression was more than just socially imposed, it also helped save people from their own savagery.

(Freud, 1920)


Freud started to change some of his thoughts after the death drive came about. Which of his views changed?

Freud revised his earlier beliefs that no repression is ideal, but that repression must be modulated to allow some gratification while maintaining some impulses to stay repressed (people need to repress the savagery for the good of society).

(Freud, 1920)


When did Freud's drive conflict model come about?

1905; 1923


What are Freud's 5 psychosexual stages of development?

Only Assholes Push Little Girls

Oral - 0-1.5
Anal - 1.5-3
Phallic (Oedipal stage here!) - 3-6 (Jung, 1913 suggested an Electra Complex)
Latency - 6-puberty, but that varies
Genital - (puberty - death)


Who suggested the Electra Complex? In what year?

Jung, 1913


What causes a fixation in the psychosocial stages?

Overgratification or overfrustration, which could cause the child to become fixed to the developmental issues of the stage.


What psychosexual stage did Freud believe depressed individuals were stuck in? Cite.

▪Depressed individuals suffer a disruption in the oral stage (Freud, 1917).
▪Being fixated at this stage fosters dependency (e.g., being held, cuddled, bathed, etc.) and results in emotional dependency that continues throughout adult life.
▪Self-esteem depends on other important people of the environment. When a significant loss occurs, the mourner’s self-esteem plummets.


What is "symbolic loss"?

What psychopathology does it largely pertain to?

What should you cite when talking about it?

A person may perceive rejection or reproach as symbolic of an earlier loss, which induces depression.

IMPORTANT: Early losses of loved ones can cause a proclivity to depression in adulthood (so if a question leaves room for it, you can mention one of the parents or caregivers died or left the home to explain the roots of MDD or PDD).
Oedipal/Electra Complex
Likely a failure in this conflict
Libidinal desires for mother/father and fears of the
opposite sex, parent’s retribution
Fear causes child to repress libidinal desires and child
turns to identify with the same sex parent
Leads to a development in the superego
Example of Jane – absence of father or stable male
figure, Oedipal conflict was never resolved, thus Jane
over identifies with her mother and internalizes her
critical nature, therefore a harsh superego develops –
becomes a Complex


(Freud, 1917)