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The study of the endocrine system and related diseases and disorders.

Endocrinology

1

Glands that secrete through a duct, such as sweat glands or mammary glands.

Exocrine glands

2

What hormone is produced in the blood of pregnant women that aids in muscle relaxation during childbirth?

Relaxin

3

Hormone that causes the uterus to contract during labor.

Oxytocin

4

The rate at which the body metabolizes when it is at a resting state, typically 12 hours after the last meal.

Basal metabolic rate (BMR)

5

Cell groups that produce insulin and glucagons.

Islets of Langerhans

6

The outer part of the adrenal gland that inhibits inflammation through the production of cortisol; regulates minerals in the blood and produces sex hormones.

Adrenal cortex

7

An endocrine gland located above the kidney. It helps control heart rate and blood pressure and regulate the fight-or-flight stress response.

Adrenal gland

8

The inner part of the adrenal gland that produces epinephrine and norepinephrine, hormones that are released in response to stress.

Adrenal medulla

9

An anterior pituitary hormone that maintains the adrenal cortex and stimulates the cortex to produce steroids.

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

10

One of two lobes of the pituitary; produces human growth hormone and hormones that stimulate the thyroid, adrenals, and gonads.

Anterior pituitary gland

11

A posterior pituitary hormone that increases the reabsorption of water in the kidneys to decrease urine production.

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

12

A thyroid hormone that controls the levels of calcium and phosphorous in the blood.

Calcitonin

13

The main hormone produced by the adrenal glands; raises blood sugar level; promotes glycogen breakdown in the liver, and stimulates the change of proteins into carbohydrates.

Cortisol

14

A neurotransmitter that is usually activated by stress; acts to inhibit the transmission of nerve impulses.

Dopamine

15

Promotes cell growth and specialization, is essential in embryo development, and important in wound healing; it is produced by many normal cell types and some tumors.

Epidermal growth factor (EGF)

16

An adrenal hormone that stimulates blood flow; also called adrenaline.

Epinephrine

17

A sex hormone produced in the ovaries (the female gonads); regulates the menstrual cycle and the development of of the female sexual organs and secondary sex characteristics.

Estrogen

18

A hormone produced by many tissues that stimulates cell growth and the growth of new blood vessels.

Fibroblast growth factor

19

An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the production of sperm in males and the development of the follicle, a structure within the ovaries that produces eggs.

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

20

Glands that produce sex cells (also called gametes) and sex hormones. They are called testes in males and produce testosterone. They are called ovaries in females and produce estrogen and progesterone.

Gonade

21

An anterior pituitary hormone that controls the growth of bones and soft tissues; involved in metabolizing fat in the body.

Human growth hormone (HGH)

22

A pancreatic hormone that lowers blood sugar levels by facilitating the uptake of glucose by the cells.

Insulin

23

An anterior pituitary hormone that promotes ovulation in females and stimulates testosterone production in males.

Luteinizing hormone (LH)

24

A hormone produced in the pineal gland, thought to be the regulator of the body's circadian rhythms, the 24 hour cycle of regularly recurring processes such as eating and sleeping.

Melatonin

25

A hormone produced by a variety of tissues that facilitates the growth of the ganglia (nerve tissue) in embryos and differentiation of neurons, and maintains the balance of the sympathetic nervous system.

Nerve growth factor

26

A neurotransmitter that prepares the body for stress by regulating heart rate and oxygen delivery.

Norepinephrine

27

The female gonad in which eggs (ova) are developed and released during ovulation.

Ovary

28

A gland that secretes insulin and pancreatic enzymes that aid in the digestion of food.

Pancreas

29

One of four tiny glands attached to (or buried within) the thyroid; secretes hormones that regulates blood calcium levels, which affect many bodily functions.

Parathyroid gland

30

A small gland in the midbrain where melatonin and serotonin are produced.

Pineal gland

31

A pea-sized gland in the brain comprised of anterior and posterior lobes; called the "master gland" because it produces the hormones that control several other glands.

Pituitary gland

32

A hormone produced in the blood platelets that appears to facilitate the healing of wounds.

Platelet-derived growth factor

33

One of the two lobes of the pituitary; produces ADH and the hormone oxytocin, which stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth as well as lactation.

Posterior pituitary gland

34

A sex hormone; an antagonist of estrogen produced by the ovaries; prepares the uterus for the implantation of a fertilized egg and prevents miscarriage by preserving the uterine lining.

Progesterone

35

The male gonad.

Testis

36

A male sex hormone; regulates the production of sperm and causes the growth of male secondary sex characteristics.

Testosterone

37

An organ located above the heart that produces T-cells -- specialized cells of the immune system.

Thymus

38

Located above the larynx; an endocrine gland that regulates metabolism.

Thyroid gland

39

A pituitary disorder in the adult caused by excessive amounts of growth hormone, characterized by overly larges lips and nose, enlarged jawbones and forehead, and abnormally enlarged bones in the extremities.

Acromegaly

40

An endocrine disease resulting from hyposecretion of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids from the adrenal glands, which results in low blood pressure, low energy levels, low blood sugar, and electrolyte imbalances.

Addison disease

41

An adrenal disorder that causes overproduction of the hormone aldosterone, resulting in excess thirst, excess urination, low potassium levels, muscle weakness, high blood pressure, and over-alkaline blood.

Conn syndrome

42

A thyroid disorder in infancy and childhood caused by an in adequately developed thyroid gland, characterized by stunted physical and mental growth.

Cretinism

43

A disease characterized by excessive production of cortisol from the adrenal cortex, resulting in fatty deposits in various locations of the body, weight gain, puffy appearance, chronic fatigue, impotence, a decline in mental ability, and muscle atrophy, among other symptoms.

Cushing disease

44

A pituitary disorder involving deficient ADH levels, unrelated to diabetes mellitus, that causes very diluted urine; extreme thirst and frequent urination result.

Diabetes insipidus

45

A pancreatic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, accompanied by conditions such as peripheral neuropathy, retinopathy, renal impairment, and poor circulation.

Diabetes mellitus

46

A pituitary disorder caused by a deficiency of growth hormone, characterized by an unusually short stature.

Dwarfism

47

Abnormal protrusion of the eyeball, sometimes caused by thyroid problems.

Exophthalmos

48

A pituitary disorder caused by an excess of growth hormone during childhood, characterized by excessively long bones.

Gigantism

49

A thyroid disorder in which the gland becomes enlarged.

Goiter

50

An autoimmune disorder; the most common cause of hyperthyroidism, which causes bulging eyeballs and an enlarged thyroid (at least double the normal size).

Graves' disease

51

A nonbacterial inflammation of the thyroid gland, resulting in destruction of the gland and hypothyroidism.

Hashimoto disease

52

A condition in which the blood sugar level is abnormally high; often characteristic of diabetes mellitus.

Hyperglycemia

53

A disorder in which too much parathyroid hormone is produced, resulting in too much calcium in the blood; causes increased metabolism, high blood pressure, rapid heart rate, and related symptoms.

Hyperparathyroidism

54

A deficiency in blood sugar level; can be caused by a diabetic injecting too much insulin or the presence of too little glucose.

Hypoglycemia

55

A disorder in which too little parathyroid hormone is produced, resulting in low blood calcium levels; causes muscle spasms, decreased metabolism, lethargy, sensitivity to cold, and menstrual problems.

Hypoparathyroidism

56

A sudden drop in blood sugar levels resulting from too much insulin being administered that can result in mental impairment, convulsions, and ultimately death if blood sugar is not raised quickly; associated with type 1 diabetes.

Insulin shock

57

A syndrome associated with hypothyroidism; symptoms include edema, weight gain, a slowing of the heart rate, low body temperature, and mental dullness.

Myxedema

58

A parathyroid disorder; a brittleness of the bones caused by an excessive loss of calcium caused by an overactive parathyroid gland.

Osteitis fibrosa cystic a

59

A pineal disorder, characterized by depressions that that occur at the same time every year, usually during winter; symptoms include weight gain, decrease in energy, excessive sleeping, anxiety, and irritability.

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD)