Flashcards in 13 - The Endocrine System Deck (60)
The study of the endocrine system and related diseases and disorders.
Glands that secrete through a duct, such as sweat glands or mammary glands.
What hormone is produced in the blood of pregnant women that aids in muscle relaxation during childbirth?
Hormone that causes the uterus to contract during labor.
The rate at which the body metabolizes when it is at a resting state, typically 12 hours after the last meal.
Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
Cell groups that produce insulin and glucagons.
Islets of Langerhans
The outer part of the adrenal gland that inhibits inflammation through the production of cortisol; regulates minerals in the blood and produces sex hormones.
An endocrine gland located above the kidney. It helps control heart rate and blood pressure and regulate the fight-or-flight stress response.
The inner part of the adrenal gland that produces epinephrine and norepinephrine, hormones that are released in response to stress.
An anterior pituitary hormone that maintains the adrenal cortex and stimulates the cortex to produce steroids.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
One of two lobes of the pituitary; produces human growth hormone and hormones that stimulate the thyroid, adrenals, and gonads.
Anterior pituitary gland
A posterior pituitary hormone that increases the reabsorption of water in the kidneys to decrease urine production.
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
A thyroid hormone that controls the levels of calcium and phosphorous in the blood.
The main hormone produced by the adrenal glands; raises blood sugar level; promotes glycogen breakdown in the liver, and stimulates the change of proteins into carbohydrates.
A neurotransmitter that is usually activated by stress; acts to inhibit the transmission of nerve impulses.
Promotes cell growth and specialization, is essential in embryo development, and important in wound healing; it is produced by many normal cell types and some tumors.
Epidermal growth factor (EGF)
An adrenal hormone that stimulates blood flow; also called adrenaline.
A sex hormone produced in the ovaries (the female gonads); regulates the menstrual cycle and the development of of the female sexual organs and secondary sex characteristics.
A hormone produced by many tissues that stimulates cell growth and the growth of new blood vessels.
Fibroblast growth factor
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the production of sperm in males and the development of the follicle, a structure within the ovaries that produces eggs.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Glands that produce sex cells (also called gametes) and sex hormones. They are called testes in males and produce testosterone. They are called ovaries in females and produce estrogen and progesterone.
An anterior pituitary hormone that controls the growth of bones and soft tissues; involved in metabolizing fat in the body.
Human growth hormone (HGH)
A pancreatic hormone that lowers blood sugar levels by facilitating the uptake of glucose by the cells.
An anterior pituitary hormone that promotes ovulation in females and stimulates testosterone production in males.
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
A hormone produced in the pineal gland, thought to be the regulator of the body's circadian rhythms, the 24 hour cycle of regularly recurring processes such as eating and sleeping.
A hormone produced by a variety of tissues that facilitates the growth of the ganglia (nerve tissue) in embryos and differentiation of neurons, and maintains the balance of the sympathetic nervous system.
Nerve growth factor
A neurotransmitter that prepares the body for stress by regulating heart rate and oxygen delivery.
The female gonad in which eggs (ova) are developed and released during ovulation.
A gland that secretes insulin and pancreatic enzymes that aid in the digestion of food.