Flashcards in 13.1 - Controlling communicable diseases Deck (25):
What is a vaccine?
Material containing antigens
What is a vaccination?
The administration of a vaccine to stimulate an immune system to produce complementary antibodies to a pathogen
How does vaccination break the cycle of infection?
The immune system prevents the pathogen from multiplying, so the immune person won't obtain symptoms and the pathogen will not be passed on
What forms of vaccination are there?
What types of vaccine are there?
Killed inactivated vaccines
What does a weakened vaccine contain?
Modified strain of bacteria that can multiply but aren't pathogenic
What is an example of a disease treated with weakened vaccines?
What are advantages of weakened vaccines?
Gives the strongest response
Long lasting immunity
What are the disadvantages of weakened vaccines?
Can't be given to anyone with a compromised immune system
What do killed inactivated vaccines contain?
Bacteria are killed but antigens are intact and provoke an immune response
Give examples of diseases inactivated vaccines treat
What are advantages of killed inactivated vaccines?
Safer than live vaccines
What are disadvantages of killed inactivated vaccines?
Gives a weaker immune response
Boosters are needed
What do toxoids contain?
Extracted toxins that have been treated.
Trigger the production of antitoxins.
What diseases do toxoids treat?
What are advantages of toxoids?
Safe to use in cases where the toxins are the reasons for the pathogens virulence
What do subunit vaccines consist of?
Specific antigens are extracted
What diseases do subunit vaccines treat?
What are disadvantages of toxoids?
Don't give the strongest immune response
What is an advantage of artificial antigen vaccines?
Can be used to produce live vaccines
Why may boosters be used?
Increase number of memory cells and ensure a rapid secondary response to destroy the pathogen before it multiplies
What allows for a successful vaccination programme?
Most of the population must be immune (herd immunity)
What is ring vaccination?
Individuals in a certain area will be vaccinated
What are the advantages of using live vaccines?
Produce strongest immune response