13.1 - Controlling communicable diseases Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 13.1 - Controlling communicable diseases Deck (25):
1

What is a vaccine?

Material containing antigens

2

What is a vaccination?

The administration of a vaccine to stimulate an immune system to produce complementary antibodies to a pathogen

3

How does vaccination break the cycle of infection?

The immune system prevents the pathogen from multiplying, so the immune person won't obtain symptoms and the pathogen will not be passed on

4

What forms of vaccination are there?

Injection
Orally taken

5

What types of vaccine are there?

Weakened vaccines
Killed inactivated vaccines
Toxoids
Subunit vaccines
Artificial antigens

6

What does a weakened vaccine contain?

Modified strain of bacteria that can multiply but aren't pathogenic

7

What is an example of a disease treated with weakened vaccines?

MMR
TB

8

What are advantages of weakened vaccines?

Gives the strongest response
Long lasting immunity

9

What are the disadvantages of weakened vaccines?

Can't be given to anyone with a compromised immune system

10

What do killed inactivated vaccines contain?

Bacteria are killed but antigens are intact and provoke an immune response

11

Give examples of diseases inactivated vaccines treat

Influenza
Cholera

12

What are advantages of killed inactivated vaccines?

Safer than live vaccines

13

What are disadvantages of killed inactivated vaccines?

Gives a weaker immune response
Boosters are needed

14

What do toxoids contain?

Extracted toxins that have been treated.
Trigger the production of antitoxins.

15

What diseases do toxoids treat?

Diptheria
Tetanus

16

What are advantages of toxoids?

Safe to use in cases where the toxins are the reasons for the pathogens virulence

17

What do subunit vaccines consist of?

Specific antigens are extracted

18

What diseases do subunit vaccines treat?

PVC
Pneumococcal vaccine

19

What are disadvantages of toxoids?

Don't give the strongest immune response

20

What is an advantage of artificial antigen vaccines?

Can be used to produce live vaccines

21

Why may boosters be used?

Increase number of memory cells and ensure a rapid secondary response to destroy the pathogen before it multiplies

22

What allows for a successful vaccination programme?

Most of the population must be immune (herd immunity)

23

What is ring vaccination?

Individuals in a certain area will be vaccinated

24

What are the advantages of using live vaccines?

Produce strongest immune response

25

What are the disadvantages of using live vaccines?

Difficult to store/transport

Cannot be used on people with a compromised immune system