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Flashcards in 13.2 - Problems developing vaccines Deck (14):
1

What are the biological problems in the development of vaccines?

Mutation rate of pathogens
Time-consuming to develop vaccines
Large variety of different forms of antigens on the pathogen surface
Sterile conditions are needed when developing vaccines = expensive

2

How is the mutation rate of pathogens a problem for vaccine?

Mutations lead to changes in the antigens, resulting in non-complementary shape so the antibodies won't be able to bind to the antigen, so the vaccine will have no effect

3

What are biological problems with vaccination programmes?

Dangers with use of live vaccines
Storage, transport are difficult

4

Why are using live vaccines considered dangerous?

Future mutations may cause pathogen to become virulent again and disease symptoms will develop

5

Why is it difficult to store vaccines?

Need refrigerating

6

What are the ethical issues in the development of vaccines?

Need to be tested on animals first

Expensive

7

What are ethical issues with implementing vaccine programmes?

Do people have a right to refuse a vaccine? Or should it be compulsory to benefit the whole population?

Individual differences - side effects

8

What are ethical issues relating to the HPV vaccine programme?

Should males be vaccinated as well as females?

Should vaccination be compulsory?

Will side effects create health risks/long-term harm?

Is it acceptable to trial potential vaccines on animals?

9

What is HPV?

Human Papilloma Virus

10

How is HPV transmitted?

Sexually transmitted

11

What type of vaccine treats HPV?

Subunit

12

What is the effect of the HPV vaccine?

Reduces incidence of cervical cancer

13

What is antigen variability?

Refers to the different types of antigens found on pathogens

14

In summary, outline 5 issues in developing new vaccines

Pathogen mutation
Pathogen variability
Possibility of vaccine becoming virulent again
Storage issues
Cost issues