13.3 - Antibiotics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 13.3 - Antibiotics Deck (21):
1

What is an antibiotic?

A substance produced by a living organism that kills microorganism/slows down growth

2

Are antibiotics effective on viruses?

No

3

Why aren't antibiotics effective on viruses?

Viruses have a protein coat, instead of a peptidoglycan wall

4

Who discovered how penicillin works?

Fleming

5

What are the circles around the penicillin called?

Zone of inhibition

6

What are the 2 types of antibiotics?

Bacteriocidal
Bacteriostatic

7

Which antibiotic kills bacteria?

Bacteriocidal

8

How do bacteriocidal antibiotics work?

Prevent cell wall synthesis, leading to bursting of the bacterial cells (lysis)

9

Give an example of a bacteriocidal antibiotic

Penicillin

10

What do bacteriostatic antibiotics do?

Prevent the reproduction of the bacteria by interfering with protein synthesis

11

What is an example of a bacteriostatic antibiotic?

Tetracycline

12

What are broad-spectrum antibiotics?

They work against a wide range of different types of bacteria

13

How does antibiotic resistance develop?

1) Mutations occur in genes that regulate resistance
2) Leads to variation within bacterial population
3) Some cells become resistant to the antibiotic
4) These cells survive, reproduce, and pass on gene
5) Eventually all bacterial cells display resistance

14

What effect do sulphonamides have on bacterial cells?

Act as competitive inhibitors of the cell's metabolism, meaning they cannot synthesis DNA

15

What effect does erythromycin have?

Prevents protein synthesis by blocking one of the sites on the ribosome

16

Why are MRSA infections dangerous?

Because MRSA is resistant to most antibiotics

17

What is MDR-TB?

Multiple drug resistant strains of the TB bacterium

18

Why is it important the MDR-TB patients complete their course?

Because otherwise the most resistant bacterial populations will survive

19

What factors cause the spread of resistance?

Incomplete courses
Overuse of antibiotics
Use of antibiotics in animal feed

20

How can we slow down the spread of resistant bacteria?

Reduce contamination in hospitals
Improve cleanliness of hands
Isolate infected patients
Rigorous use of aseptic techniques

21

Why may antibiotics be damaging to the human body?

The antibiotics will destroy the microbiome