Flashcards in 13.3 - Antibiotics Deck (21):
What is an antibiotic?
A substance produced by a living organism that kills microorganism/slows down growth
Are antibiotics effective on viruses?
Why aren't antibiotics effective on viruses?
Viruses have a protein coat, instead of a peptidoglycan wall
Who discovered how penicillin works?
What are the circles around the penicillin called?
Zone of inhibition
What are the 2 types of antibiotics?
Which antibiotic kills bacteria?
How do bacteriocidal antibiotics work?
Prevent cell wall synthesis, leading to bursting of the bacterial cells (lysis)
Give an example of a bacteriocidal antibiotic
What do bacteriostatic antibiotics do?
Prevent the reproduction of the bacteria by interfering with protein synthesis
What is an example of a bacteriostatic antibiotic?
What are broad-spectrum antibiotics?
They work against a wide range of different types of bacteria
How does antibiotic resistance develop?
1) Mutations occur in genes that regulate resistance
2) Leads to variation within bacterial population
3) Some cells become resistant to the antibiotic
4) These cells survive, reproduce, and pass on gene
5) Eventually all bacterial cells display resistance
What effect do sulphonamides have on bacterial cells?
Act as competitive inhibitors of the cell's metabolism, meaning they cannot synthesis DNA
What effect does erythromycin have?
Prevents protein synthesis by blocking one of the sites on the ribosome
Why are MRSA infections dangerous?
Because MRSA is resistant to most antibiotics
What is MDR-TB?
Multiple drug resistant strains of the TB bacterium
Why is it important the MDR-TB patients complete their course?
Because otherwise the most resistant bacterial populations will survive
What factors cause the spread of resistance?
Overuse of antibiotics
Use of antibiotics in animal feed
How can we slow down the spread of resistant bacteria?
Reduce contamination in hospitals
Improve cleanliness of hands
Isolate infected patients
Rigorous use of aseptic techniques