1.4 & 2.1 functional ultrastructure & cell bio Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1.4 & 2.1 functional ultrastructure & cell bio Deck (137)
1

T/F most epithelial cells have a basal membrane

false - All epithelial cells have a basement membrane

2

"adluminal" signifies

apical -- toward the lumen

3

"abluminal" signifies

basal -- away from the lumen

4

this cell surface specialization "beats," and has a motile function

cilia

5

is connective tissue composed of cells or extracellular matrix?

both

6

why is "stereocilia" a misnomer

because they are not the same as cilia -- they do not beat and have no motile function, only absorptive

7

this cell surface specialization functions to increase surface area for absorption but is too small to be resolved on LM

microvilli

8

what are goblet cells

glandular, simple columnar epithelial cells that secrete mucus

9

what prominent cell type can be found in a tracheal section but not an esophageal section?

cartilage

10

skeletal muscle fibers are "syncytia," which means that they

are formed from several individual cells joining together during development

11

2 ways to tell smooth and skeletal muscle apart

-smooth muscle isn't striated (less orderly actin/myosin filaments)
-smooth muscle has central nuclei vs skeletal muscle's nuclei squished to the side of the cell

12

how can you tell glands and blood vessels apart?

glands are often ciliated and have thicker, more columnar epithelia vs blood vessels' simple squamous epithelia

13

on LM, the basal lamina can only be seen as the _.
on EM, the basal lamina can be seen as the _, _ and _.

-basement membrane
-lamina lucida, lamina densa, lamina reticularis

14

lamina lucida

attached to basal cell

15

what does the "unit membrane" refer to

just an older term for "plasma membrane" of a cell

16

the two inner faces of a membrane lipid bilayer are called...

-the P-face (protoplasmic)
-the E-face (ectoplasmic

17

freeze fracture technique

freeze tissues and crack apart -- cracks along hydrophobic domains of cell membranes (only parts that are not frozen) exposing hydrophobic areas of membranes

18

an important protein-sugar functional extension of the cell surface is called

glycocalyx

19

site of lipid/steroid production

smooth endoplasmic reticulum

20

site of protein packaging & addressing

golgi

21

on H&E, mitochondria stains...

eosinophilic

22

basal striations

folds in a membrane to increase surface area

23

endocytosis

uptake of substances from extracellular space

24

phagocytosis

uptake & digestion of extracellular substances

25

pinocytosis

cellular uptake of water, ions, and small substances

26

endosome

vesicle of endocytosis

27

vesicles designed to break down fatty acids through oxygenation

peroxisomes

28

vesicles for phagocytosis containing hydrolase enzymes

lysosome

29

difference between peroxisome and lysosome

-peroxisome breaks down fatty acid via oxygenation
-lysosome contains hydrolase enzymes

30

undigestible remnants of metabolic processes that accumulate in celles

residual bodies

31

what ion and protein can regulate exocytotic fusion with the cell membrane?

Ca++ and SARE proteins

32

3 elements of cytoskeleton

-thin filaments (actin)
-intermediate filaments
-microtubules

33

this cell cytoskeleton filament generally sits beneath the membrane and functions in motility, flxibility, and transmission of force across and between cells

thin filaments (actin)

34

this cell cytoskeleton filament forms a scaffolding and maintains shape of the cell

intermediate fliaments

35

this cell cytoskeleton filament forms a transport network in the cell

microtubules

36

intermediate filaments include these 3 proteins among others

desmins, keratins, vimentins

37

microtubules radiate out from the...

microtubule organizing center MTOC

38

a microtubule organizing center MTOC is organized around...

a pair of centrioles

39

MTOCs are referred to as ___ during cell division

centrosomes

40

what are the 4 cell junction types

-tight junctions
-desmosomes
-adhering junctions
-gap junctions

41

desmosome (latin name)

macula adherens (adhering spot - spot weld)

42

what kind of proteins comprise desmosomes

cadherin proteins on surface bound to cytoskeletal keratin intracellularly

43

junction that appears in EM as a roundish density centered over the membranes of two adjacent cells

desmosome

44

cadherins comprise what kind of cell connection

desmosome

45

when cadherin proteins bind a cell to connective tissue, the junction is called...

a hemidesmosome

46

latin name for adhering junctions

zonula adherens

47

macula adherens is the latin name for

desmosome (adhering spot, "spot weld")

48

gap junction

electically conductive channel between neighboring cells fomed by transmembrane connexin proteins

49

which cell junction is composed of transmembrane connexin proteins?

gap junction

50

desmins, keratins, and vemintins are examples of proteins that make up what kind of cytoskeletal element?

intermediate filaments

51

what type of cytoskeletal filaments do desmosomes bind to intracellularly?

intermediate filaments (keratin)

52

are most proteins found on the E-face or the P-face of the cell membrane?

P-face -- tells us that most anchors are intracellular

53

what kind of proteins comprise gap junctions?

connexins

54

connexins comprise what kind of cell junction?

gap junctions

55

what cytoskeletal filaments do adhering junctions connect to?

actin (thin filaments)

56

what cytoskeletal filaments do zonula adherens connect to?

actin (thin filaments)

57

latin name for tight junctions

zonula occludins

58

what kind of cell junction binds cells together for transmitting force?

zonula adherens (adhering junction)

59

what kind of cell junction binds cells together for transmitting electrochemical signals?

gap junctions

60

what kind of cytoskeletal filaments do gap junctions connect to?

none

61

what kind of transmembrane proteins compose tight junctions?

claudins and occludins

62

claudins and occludins make up what kind of cell junctions?

tight junctions

63

cadherins - what junction
connexins - what junction
claudins - what junction
occludins - what junction

cadherins - desmosomes and adhering junctions
connexins - gap junctions
claudins - tight junctions
occludins - tight junctions

64

adhering junctions are composed of...

cadherins connected to thin filaments

65

desmosomes are composed of

cadherins connected to intermediate filaments

66

adhering junctions and desmosomes are both made of cadherins but one binds to __ and the other binds to __

desmosomes = cadherins + intermediate filaments
adherens = cadherins + actin filaments

67

what type of junction is usually located most apically?

tight junctions

68

a junctional complex consists of...

tight junctions, adhering junctions, and desmosomes

69

a hemidesmosome is...

a desmosome (cadherins + intermediate filaments) that connect cell to connective tissue

70

where is a junctional complex found... apically or basally?

toward the apical end of the cell

71

large amounts of what kind of organelle can give a cell a more eosinophilic stain?

mitochondria

72

In epithelia, an apical cell surface specialization that usually functions to move material along the surface is called

cilia

73

axoneme

the core of the cilium with, characteristic "9 doublets + 2 central" arrangement of microtubules

74

the core of the cilium, with characteristic "9 doublets + 2 central" arrangement of microtubules, is called

an axoneme

75

cilia insert into the cell body in structures called...

basal bodies, that consist of "9 triplets + 0" microtubules"

76

basal bodies, that consist of "9 triplets + 0" microtubules," are the structures that insert this cell surface specialization into the cell body

cilia

77

what cell surface specialization has a characteristic "9 doublet + 2 central" microtubule core

cilia

78

the core of a microvillus consists of

longitudinally arranged f-actin, which is inserted into the actin of the cytoskeleton in an area called the terminal web

79

this cell surface specialization has an absorptive function and has a core of longitudinally arranged f-actin inserted into the cytoskeleton at the terminal web

microvilli

80

the microvilli border found in the kidney is called the...

brush border

81

the brush border is composed of This cell surface specialization in This organ

microvilli in the kidney

82

the microvilli border found in the intestines is called the...

striated border

83

the striated border is composed of This cell surface specialization in This organ

microvilli in the intestines

84

brush border vs striated boirder

brush - microvilli in the kindey
striated - microvilli in the intestine

85

a terminal web anchors what into the cell body

microvilli

86

a basal body anchors what into the cell body

cilia

87

nuclear pores allow the transport of...

RNA and small molecules

88

the nuclear membrane is continuous with this organelle

RER rough endoplasmic reticulum

89

in LM, the DNA complex is referred to as __

chromatin

90

largely unpacked and lightly appearing chromatin is called __

euchromatin

91

tightly packed and dense appearing chromatin is called __

heterochromatin

92

does a lightly staining nucleus probably contain euchromatin or heterochromatin?

euchromatin (unpacked)

93

does a darkly staining nucleus probably contain euchromatin or heterochromatin?

heterochromatin (packed)

94

the site of RNA production is called the __

nucleolus

95

the nucleolus is the site of...

RNA production

96

where do centromeres bind to chromosomes?

bind to center of chromosomes

97

where do a telomeres bind to chromosomes?

cap the ends of chromosomes

98

this structure binds to the center of chromosomes and organizes them during cell division

centromere

99

this structure caps the ends of chromosomes during cell division

telomere

100

this organelle becomes the centrosome and organizes chromosomes during cell division

MTOC

101

if n is chromosome number and x is chromosome copies, then the algebraic progression of chromosome number during mitosis is...

2n1x
2n2x
2n1x

102

if n is chromosome number and x is chromosome copies, then the algebraic progression of chromosome number during meiosis is...

2n1x
2n2x
2n1x
1n1x

103

controlled cell death, involving dissolution of chromosomal material, autodigestion, and lysing, is called...

apoptosis

104

apoptosis is designed to minimize...

exposure of the lysed cell to the immune system

105

weaker cell-cell adhesions in primitive embryonic epithelia may be made up of proteins including these 3:

cadherins, integrins, selectins (also found in adult vasculature, eg white blood cells)

106

cadherins, integrins, and selectins are examples of proteins that may make up weaker cell-cell adhesions found for example in these 2 instances:

-primitive embryonic epithelia
-adult vasculature (eg white blood cells)

107

the "e" in e-cadherin stands for __

epithelial

108

a cell freeing itself from adhesions to other cells and lamina, freenig itself to migrate, is undergoing __

de-lamination

109

T/F cells in connective tissue are highly connected and therefore their movement is restricted

false - connective tissue cells have very little attachement and are free to move

110

an example of "de-lamination" during gastrulation includes...

the migration of epiblast cells

111

the layer of extracellular glycolypids that function in part to make the membrane "slippery" is called

the glycocalyx

112

T/F the junctional complex encircles entire cell near apical end and is a good indicator of apical/basal polarity

true

113

this organelle supplies energy, has its own DNA, and pinches apart to divide

mitochondria

114

more mitochondria leads to a deeper ___ stain

eosinophilic

115

T/F the "primary cilium", found in almost all cell types other than blood and bone marrow derived cells, has sensory and motor function

true

116

this cytoskeletal organelle has the appearance of perpendicular barrels on EM

MTOC
microtubule organizing center

117

this organelle produces diffusable molecules (eg steroid hormones)

SER smooth endoplasmic reticulum

118

the rough endoplasmic reticulum RER is for proteins to be packaged and addressed, otherwise proteins will be produced by..

free ribosomes in the cytoplasm

119

this organelle functions in protein storing and addressing

golgi

120

flagella consist of what type of filament and are related to what other kind of cell surface specialization?

-consist of microtubules
-related to cilium

121

a cell producing antibodies can be identified by these 2 appearances:

-basophilic cytoplasm (lots of RNA & ribosomes)
-clear area on edge of nucleus (golgi for packaging & sending)

122

this organelle contains acid hydrolase enzymes

lysosome

123

proteins regulating exocytosis include these 2:

-SNARES
-clathrin coats

124

in __, homologous chromosomes line up next to one another. in __, homologous chromosomes line up across from one another

-metaphase of mitosis - line up next
-metaphase I meiosis - line up across

125

this organelle produces ribosomes

nucleolus

126

paneth cells and mast cells are examples of...

secretory cells
-paneth cells may be found with goblet cells in glands of places like the intestine
-mast cells may be found in connective tissue and play a role in allergies, anaphlaxis, wound healing, and pathogen defense

127

merocrine secretion

vesicles fuse with membrane

128

apocrine secretion

lipid product is extravisated (mammary gland)

129

halocrine secretion

product accumulates in cell and is released by cell lysis (sebacous gland)

130

cytocrine secretion

product transfered directly from one cell to another (melanosome)

131

melanosome

cell functions in synthesis, transport, and storage of melanin

132

transcytosis

object taken up on one side of cell, travels across, and released on other side

133

vesicles fuse with membrane = __ secretion

merocrine

134

lipid product is extravisated (mammary gland) = ___ secretion

apocrine

135

product accumulates in cell and is released by cell lysis (sebacous gland) = ___ secretion

halocrine

136

product transfered directly from one cell to another (melanosome) = ___ secretion

cytrocrine

137

object taken up on one side of cell, travels across, and released on other side = ___

transcytosis