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plasma Ca2+ exists in how many forms and which ( and the porportion

3 forms:
1. ionized (45%)
2. bound to albumin (40%)
3. bound to anions (15%)


plasma Ca2+ in increased ph

increased affinity of albumin to bund Ca2+ --> hypocalcemia


hypocalcemia symptoms

1. cramps
2. pain
3. paresthesias
4. carpopedal spasm


• Within plasma, in what form is most Ca2+ found? In what other forms is it found?

Ionized (about 45%), bound to albumin (about 40%), bound to anions (about 15%)


You see a woman with respiratory alkalosis. What are the clinical manifestations in relation to her increased pH's effect on plasma [Ca2+]?

Increased pH increases albumin's affinity for Ca2+, causing clinical hypocalcemia (cramps, pain, paresthesias, carpopedal spasms)