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Flashcards in 14 Principles of Vaccination Deck (35):
1

Process whereby a person is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, typically by administration of a vaccine

Immunization

2

Modified form of natural immunogen
Whole pathogen or one of its components or a toxin

Vaccine

3

Clinical application of immunization
Designed to artificially help immune defense

Vaccination

4

Introduction of foreign antigens to an individual
Exposure to disease or artificial immunization
Immune system is stimulated for the body to undertake antibody formation and memory B/T cell formation

Active immunization

5

Preformed antibodies from an exogenous source
Provides immediate protection
No immunological memory

Passive immunization

6

First few drops of breast milk has the highest concentration of antibodies

Colostral Ig

7

Antigen is pure and defined, given in a simple, painless one step procedure
Inexpensive

Ideal vaccine

8

Derived from protective antigens
Usually these are small enough to go to the lymph nodes easily and able to cross link BCRs so that it leads to B cell activation
Directly induce an immune response
Determined by gene and protein sequences

Protective epitope

9

Conjugate hapten in order to elicit immune response
Require hapten specific B cells, carrier specific Th, hapten-carrier must be physically linked, MHC class II restricted, basis for conjugate vaccines

Hapten-carrier effect

10

Consists of live, whole bacterial or viral cells
Reduced pathogenicity
Immunogenicity retained
Stimulates both innate and adaptive arms of the immune system
Low dosage, minimal adjuvant
Strictly cold chains, chance of reversion of attenuating mutation

Live attenuated vaccines

11

Whole bacterium, parasite or virus is killed or inactivated
Gamma irradiation or chemical agent
Preserve the structure of the protective epitope, but removes ability to replicate
No possibility of reversion, no cold-chain required
Requires boosters and adjuvant, does not usually induce robust Tc responses

Killed vaccine

12

Exotoxin molecule
Chemically altered
Composed of antigens purified from microbes or inactivated toxins
Usually administered with adjuvant
No need to use whole organism
Effective only if disease is solely due to toxin

Toxoid

13

Purified protein or polysaccharide
DNA recombinant technology
Avoid use of whole organism
Costly, not as immunogenic, does not induce robust cytotoxic T cell response

Subunit vaccines

14

Pathogen peptide purified from natural sources or synthesized using DNA recombinant methods
Precise molecular composition of the vaccine is known
No possibility of reversion to pathogenic phenotype
Very stable
Epitope size and number restricted
May require coupling to a carrier protein

Peptide vaccines

15

Recombinant vector vaccines
Uses unrelated attenuated virus or bacterium as a vector to introduce DNA from pathogen of inherent into the vaccine

DNA vaccines

16

Gene encoding pathogen antigen of interested is cloned
Bacterial lysed and purified and injected
Still under development

Naked DNA vaccines

17

The pathogenic virus must be isolated
Virulence genes must be determined and then isolated
The virulence gene will either be mutated or deleted to render it immunogenic but avirulent

Recombinant DNA technology

18

Contains live antigens, but weakened in the lab
Elicits strong cellular and antibody responses
Should not be used for immunocompromised patients

Live attenuated

19

Contains dead antigens that are incapable of replication
May require boosters or additional doses
May be administered to immunocompromised patients

Inactivated

20

For bacteria that secrete toxin
Contains detoxified or inactivated toxins
Stimulates the immune system to fight off toxin

Toxoid

21

Contains only the portion of the antigen that elicits the greatest immune response
Chances of adverse reactions lower

Subunit

22

Contains an attenuated virus or bacterium to introduce recombinant DNA into the cells

Recombinant

23

Contains a weak antigen attached to a carrier protein

Conjugated

24

Vaccine components

Active component
Adjuvants
Diluents
Stabilizers
Preservatives
Trace components

25

Enhance immune response
Allows vaccines to stay a number of hours, particularly for intramuscularly administered vaccines

Adjuvants

26

Liquid provided separately
Used to dilute vaccine to the proper concentration prior to administration
Usually a sterile saline solution

Diluents

27

Help maintain vaccine's effectiveness
Keeps antigen and components stable during storage
Sucrose, lactose, glycine, monosodium glutamate, gelatin

Stabilizers

28

Prevents fungal and bacterial contamination of the vaccine
Thimerosal/thiomerosal, phenoxyethanol, phenol

Preservatives

29

Minute components of substances that have been used in early stage of production
Gentamicin, polymyxin B, neomycin

Trace components

30

Adjuvants

Aluminum
Lipid or oil based adjuvants
PRR ligands

31

Achieve significant enhancement of vaccine induced responses
Protect vaccine molecules from protease or nuclease degradation
May act as an adjuvant
Facilitate display of multiple molecules of the vaccine antigen on the vehicle surface

Delivery vehicles

32

Mixture of vaccine antigen of interest with suspension of phospholipids
Vaccine antigen is trapped in aqueous center

Liposomes

33

Immunostimulating complexes
Hollow balls
Cholesterol+ phospholipid + detergent
Resembles multivalent antigen

ISCOMs

34

Nonreplicating artificial viruses
Liposome + viral envelope glycoprotein

Virosomes

35

Result from self-assembly of virus proteins-nuclei can acid genome or lipid envelope
Surfaces contain repetitive structure

Virus-like particles