Flashcards in 14. The French Revolution and Napoleon, 1789-1815 Deck (49):
Prior to the French Revolution, what percentage of French population comprised of peasants?
the third estate?
-4/5 or 80%
Describe briefly the course of French Revolution.
Estates General --> The National Assembly 1789-1791 --> The Legislative Assembly 1791-1792 --> The National Convention 1792-1795 --> The Directory 1795-1799 --> Napoleon and the Consulate 1799-1804 --> The Napoleonic Empire 1804-1815
What was the Assembly of Notables?
similar to the estates general but hand-picked by the king instead of election by citizens.
Basically king's Council.
Last met under Louis XVI
Why did the third estate separate?
what did they call themselves and what oath was sworn?
-King refused the 3rd estate's demand that all 3 meet together
- National Assembly of France. Tennis Court Oath
What does the storming and the fall of Bastille symbolize
an important symbolic act against royal despotism
The National Assembly drafted this constitution in august 1789
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
THE major advocate of the women's rights
what did mary wollstonecraft publish
"A Vindication of the Rights of Women"
What did the women demand in their march to Versailles?
that the king move to Paris and price of bread be lowered
Civil Constitution of the Clergy passed by the National Assembly did what?
Confiscated clergy lands and decreed that bishops and priests be elected by the people
In the midst of the reforms and establishment of the constitutional monarchy , what did the National Assembly not do?
did NOT give women the right to vote
How was the newly elected Legislative Assembly divided into factions?
"Right", "Center", and "Left"
Which groups represented the separate sections of the Legislative Assembly
Right - Conservatives supporting the king, mostly the bourgeoisie (wealthy middle class in 3rd estate)
Center - Moderates
Left - Radicals who distrusted the king
the "right" vs. the "left" in beliefs?
the moderates believed that the revolution had achieved its goals
while the left side wanted the Revolution to continue
How was the "left" faction of the Legislative Assembly divided?
Jacobins vs. Girondists
overthrow the monarchy and create a republic
- Maximilien Robespierre
It is important to know that this guy was NOT a Jacobin
LaFayette, the Hero of Two Worlds
wanted to involve France in a war that would discredit the monarchy and spread the revolution across Europe.
Basically, they wanted the end of monarchy but resisted further radical revolution.
just know them as the less radical Jacobins
Leopold II of Austria and Frederick II of Prussia issued the Declaration of Pillnitz, saying:
that the restoration of absolutism in France was of "common interest to all sovereigns of Europe"
In reaction to the Declaration of Pillnitz, what did Legislative Assembly declare?
what is it called/
called the War of the First Coalition
how did the War against Austria and Prussia go for France
began badly b/c of poorly equipped armies. but in the end, was able to stop Austro-Prussian army
who were sans-culottes and what did they do
poor radicals who took control of the Paris Commune.
Which group propelled the second french revolution by executing over a thousand priests, bourgeoisie, and aristocrats?
What was this event called?
- "September massacres"
What change did the newly-elected National Convention bring?
Abolished monarchy and declared France a republic
Girondist vs. Jocobins on the fate of Louis XVI
Who won the debate?
Girondists favored imprisonment, Jacobins demanded execution
-Jacobins won by one vote
What happened to the Girondins when there were increasing conflictions between them and Jacobins?
What did this ultimately mean?
Jacobins and sans-culottes ousted them from National Convention
- radical Jacobins were in power now as tyranny
To threaten the National Convention and the radical revolutions in France, the countries England, Spain, Holland, and Sardinia joined Prussia and Austria to form:
the First Coalition
Domestic threat against Jacobins?
Girondists and royalist Catholics rebelled against the tyranny
What kind of extreme measures did the National Convention respond with against the foreign and domestic threats?
establishment of the Committee of Public Safety
who led Committee of Pub Saf with dictatorial power and what was it called?
Robespierre, the Reign of Terror
How did Robespierre fight against the First Coalition and was he successful?
- "Nation in Arms", marking the first example of the complete mobilization of a country for war
- He successfully defeated Coalition
What happened to Robespierre in the end and why
was executed by National Convention b/c he was too radical
What is Robespierre's radical goal known as?
Republic of Virtue
What gov't came after the National Convention?
Directory, executive body of 5 men.
dominated by rich bourgeoisie
Why did Napoleon overthrow the Directory?
the Directory was very unpopular and corrupt, and Napoleon, who was very popular, happened to be in the city or something
what kind of gov't did Napoleon create and what did he call himself?
the Consulate. he was the Consul
Why did his popularity continue to rise
- restored order,
- defeated the Second Coalition
What did Napoleon do with the laws
made it uniform into Napoleonic Code
Concordat of 1801
Napoleon ended the strained relationship between French gov't and Catholic Church
1804's major event
Napoleon declared himself Emperor
what irony lies behind Napoleon's popularity?
he censored press and suppressed opposition, resulting in the loss of individual liberties of citizens. Nevertheless, France enjoyed security, stability and prosperity so the nation was grateful
During his empire's rise, Napoleon defeated these countries
Austria, Prussia, and Russia
What did Napoleon do with German states?
he dissolved the HRE and consolidated the independent states into the Confederation of the Rhine under French rule.
What did Napoleon unwillingly do within Germany?
sparked German nationalism and fueled resistance to French rule.
Thus, inadvertently accelerated the cause of German unification
What was Napoleon's Continental System?
blocking out Britain in hopes to put GB down
Why did Napoleon invade Russia that would turn out to be fatal to him?
Russia refused to stop trading with GB and violated Napoleon's Continental System
Against Napoleon, GB, Russia, Prussia, and Austria formed what?
What were the two islands Napoleon was exiled to?
Elba and St. Helena