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Flashcards in 15 Deck (32):
1

energy requirement of late adulthood

same in terms of kcal/kg FFM

2

what is the limitation of nitrogen balance study

cannot reflect the changes in protein redistribution throughout the body

3

what kind of exercise is recommended

endurance and resistance

4

difference between sarcopenia and cachexia

both lead to the loss of muscle mass but cachexia can lead to sarcopenia
sarcopenic patient may not appear to be cachexia

5

cachexia is defined by

loss of muscle and loss of fat

6

sarcopenia is a multifactorial resulted from ?

sedentary, bed dress, deconditioning, chronic condition
organ failure, drug action, inflammatory, stasis

7

what is the prominent clinical feature of cachexia?

weight loss due to the accelerated protein breakdown

8

what is the core of cachexia

inflammation induced increased muscle breakdown and insulin resistance

9

cachexia diagnosis criterion

at least 5% weight loss during 12 mon

10

adding resistance stringing

potentiate the response of the protein supplementation and the change in body mass

11

pro- inflammatory cytokines

interfere with the hormonal control of muscle metabolism

12

what does the increased fat mass affect

1. increased leptin, anorectic effect, increased risk of sarcopenia and the functional decline
2. the position of mass affect the insulin sensitivity of muscle
3. contributes equally to the secretion of the pro inflammatory cytokines

13

the loss of lean body mass during aging may be caused by

decreased ability of muscle to response anabolic stimuli to provide dietary protein

14

can lean body loss be altered

yes, by increased daily protein intake

15

which supplement can further affect the LBM

vitamin D supplement

16

why animal protein is better than plant protein in stimulating protein synthesis

provide more essential aa which triggers signaling pathways and enhance protein accretion and LBM

17

what is the most promising treatment for sarcopenia?

whey protein including leucine and resistance training

18

what is the carbohydrate requirement

SAME
total body glucose oxidation rate decrease with age

19

what is the fiber requirement

SAME
median energy intake
highest intake level for each age group is used to set AI

20

absolute amount of fiber for older people

be lower since the calorie intake is lower

21

omega-3 and omega-6

still AI, decrease a little bit
highest median intake to determine

22

Na, K, Cl level in elderly

based on the combined requirement of men and women of median energy intake

23

water requirement

set based on the median total water intake of young adult

24

why there will a decreased bioavailability of B12 from food

1. lose their ability to adequately absorb protein- bound vitamin B12 in foods
2. atrophic gastritis with low stomach acid secretion

25

does bioavailability of crysalline B12 decrease?

no alteration

26

B 12 supplements?

over 60yr

27

vitamin D requirements for elderly and why

increased
decreased absorption efficiency and decreased number of vitamin D receptor with aging

28

what is the basis to set vitamin D requirement

maintain blood levels of 25- (OH)D associated with optimal bone health

29

vitamin D supplement

recommended in elderly

30

calcium requirement for elderly and why

increased
decreased calcium absorption

31

magnesium requirement for elderly and why

increased
renal function is important to maintain Mg status

32

iron requirements for elderly

decrease