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Flashcards in 15 - Insect Transmitted Disease Deck (32)
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1

Mosquito Transmitted Diseases

Parasites
Malaria / Filariasis

Viruses
Zika / Japanese Encephalitis
Chik Fever

West Nile

Yellow / Dengue Fever

2

TICK-Transmitted Diseases

BACTERIA
LYME disease

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

+ many others

3

Biting Fly + FLEA -Transmitted Disease

Bacteria
PLAGUE

Parasite
African SLEEPING Sickness

Onchocerciasis

Leshmaniasis

4

PHYSICAL BARRIERS

Preventing Insect-Transmitted Diseases

CLOTHING
Long sleeves/pants w/ cuffs 
Boots / shoes / hats
AVOID PERFUMES
light-colored clothing

Wear during PEAK vector activity:
Malaria = DUSK --> DAWN

Dengue / Chik mosquitos + sand flies = DAYTIME

 

5

Environmental PHYSICAL BARRIERS

Preventing Insect-Transmitted Diseases

SCREENS on windows

Sleep under Chemically-treated Mosquito Netting

Eliminate Insect Habitats
Standing water = mosquitos

Tall grass / shrubs / leaf litter = ticks

6

Insect Repellants
Preventing Insect-Transmitted Diseases

Classified as PESTICIDES

US EPA Registered Active ingredients
Have been evaluated for both: SAFETY + EFFICACY

Minimum Risk / UN-Registered Agents
have been evaluated for SAFETY
but NOT EFFICACY

7

US EPA Registered Active Ingredients

PESTICIDES / Insect Repellants

International / Domestic USE:
effective against mosquitos / ticks / biting flies / chiggers / fleas

DEET / PICARIDIN

OLE + PMD
oil of lemon eucalyptus + p-methane 3,8-dio

IR3535

domestic use:
2-undecanone + catnip oil (not for ticks)

8

UNREGISTERED Active Ingredients

INSECT REPELLANTS

FDA is reconsidering because of lack of EFFICACY
but are considered SAFE

Cedar / Citronella / Geranium / Soybean
OILS

Peppermint + Peppermint OIL

9

DEET
General Info

US EPA Registered Active Ingredient

Duration of protection = Related to STRENGTH
5 - 100% DEET

Protectant duration is DECREASED by:
High ambient TEMP
SWEAT/WATER exposure

con be used on both: SKIN + CLOTHING

some systemic absorption
renally eliminated within 12 hours

10

DEET
Side Effects

Skin + Eye Irritation

Odor

Organic Solvent = damaging to:
Plastics / ryon / crystals 
spandex / painted surfaces

avoid contact with these

11

What Transmits Malaria?

Malaria = Parasite

MOSQUITOS

also transmit filariasis = parasite

12

What transmitted LYME Disease?

TICKS
also they transmit
rocky mountain fever, both are bacterias

13

What Transmitted the PLAGUE?

bacteria

BITING FLY / FLEAS

also transmitted parasites:
African sleeping sickness + Onchocerciasis

14

DEET Toxicity

Correct use = LOW RISK OF TOXICITY
most SIGNIFICANT toxicity
ingestion / frequent repeated topical administration

Reported toxic effects:
CNS 
irritability / tremor / confusion / coma / etc

Dermatologic
= pruritis / bulloous eruption / angioedema

 

15

DEET CONCENTRATIONS

age recommendations

10-30% DEET
Appropriate for MOST US applications
CHILDREN
do NOT use in children <2 months

50% DEET
recommended for HEAVILY infested areas

16

DEET
Frequency of application

Duration of protection is:
2-5 hours
depending on Strength
24% protects for ~ 5 hours , plateaus @ 50%

REAPPLY if:
high temp / water exposure / heavy sweating

17

PICARIDIN

 

US EPA Registered Active Ingredients
Cutter / Sawyer / KBR 3023

Efficacy = 19.2%similar to DEET 20%
but has SHORTER DURATION

Minimal ToxicityLess ODOR  / NOT damaging to fabrics+plastics
vs DEET

can be also used on skin + slothing,
frequency also dependent on concentration = 3-14 hours

18

IR3535

US EPA Registered Active Ingredients
AVON Skin-So-Soft Bug Guard // Bug Repell

Efficacy:
Varied Studies, Short / long duration

Eye Irritant
Systemic Toxicity
 if ingested / inhaled

damaging to plastics / fabrics

can be used on skin or clothing

19

2-Undecanone

US EPA Registered Active Ingredients
Methyl Nonyl Ketone = BioUD 7.75%

effective against 
Mosquitos + Ticks

5 hours for mosquitos
2 hours for ticks

comparable efficacy to DEET

can be used on skin + clothing

20

Oil of Lemon Eucalyptus
OLE

PMD = active ingredient
30% Concentration Comparable to 20% DEET
Repel // OFF Botanical // Fite Bite

6 HOURS of Mosquito protection

not for <3 years old

may cause eye /skin irritation

do NOT recommend pure / essential OLE

21

CATNIP OIL

derived from a plant in mint family

Refined oil of Nepeta Cataria 7% / 15%

Protects against:
Mosquitos + Black Flies
NOT TICKS

7 - 15 hours of protection

22

Citronella / Citronella oil

Minimum Risk Ingredient

Buzz Away / Natrapel / Bug Block

SHORT duration of protection = 1 hour

candles / coils are INEFFECTIVE

23

Soybean Oil

minimum risk ingredient
Bite Blocker / Bioblock

Efficacy comparable to Deet 4.75%

Duration of protection = 1.5 hours

24

Instruction for APPLICATION

Insect Repellants

ªUse enough repellent to cover exposed skin or clothing.

Do not apply repellent under clothing.
Heavy application not needed.

ªDo not apply to cuts/wounds/irritated skin.

ªAfter returning indoors, wash treated skin with soap  and water.

ªDo not spray aerosol or pump products in enclosed areas; do not inhale the aerosol

ªDo not apply aerosol or pump products directly to  the face.
Spray your hands and then rub carefully over the face, avoiding eyes and mouth. 

   ª  Discontinue use if skin irritation/rash occurs

25

INSECT REPELLENTS ON CHILDREN

DO NOT USE ON <2 months
instead use barriers

> 2months:
apply to own hands --> rub on child
do not put on children's hands --> oral exposure

avoid eyes / mouth / little around ears

26

Insect Repellent

during PREGNANCY

protection is IMPORTANT due to recent outbreaks of
ZIKA VIRUS

microcephaly --> risk to infant during intrauterine expose

no additional precaustions
for pregnant / lactating women

27

Combination Repellants
Sunscreens + Repellants

NOT RECOMENDED

DEET may reduce SPF of sunscreens
seperate applications by 1 hour

Sunscreen may ENHANCE DEET absorption

sunscreens generally applied MORE frequently --> can lead t
EXCESSIVE repellant
or inadequate sunscreen

28

Personal Protection Devices

REPELLANTS

Some efficacy to REDUCE BITES

OFF Clip-On
metoflurthrin

Terminix AllClear Sidekick
cinnamin + other oils

requires batteries + refills

29

Ineffective Repellant Products

Chemically treated wristbands

Electronic repellents

Thiamine / Vit B1

GARLIC

30

PERMETHRIN

Insect Repellant

0.5% Sprays:
Permanone / Sawyer / 3M
 / pre-treated gear

Registered for use on: 
Clothing / shoes / bedding / gear

NOT for use on SKIN

effective against:
Mosquitos + Ticks  + Anthropods