Flashcards in 15. Restoration, Romanticism, and Revolution, 1815-1848 Deck (28)
Who is Metternich and what did he do
Austrian foreign minister and host for the Congress of Vienna
Metternich's views on conservatism, liberalism, and nationalism?
he was a conservative who viewed the other two as threats to European stability and survival of his Austrian Empire
What is the principle of legitimacy in Congress of Vienna
restoring ruling families that had been deposed by the French Rev. and Napoleon
Which powers were restored by CoVienna
Bourbon rulers of France and Spain, House of Orange in Holland, and House of Savoy in Sardinia-Piedmont
Year of Congress of Vienna
To limit France from renewing its drive for power, the Congress encircled France with strengthened powers:
- Austrian Netherlands was united with Dutch Republic to form NETHERLANDS
- a group of 39 German states joined into GERMAN CONFEDERATION, dominated by Austria
- KINGDOM OF SARDINIA
Congress of Vienna successfully created a balance of power that lasted until 1871... but it underestimated:
forces of liberalism and nationalism unleashed by French Revolution
Concert of Europe
the effort to achieve balance of power and foreign issues
issued by German states to stop the student associations and repress liberal reforms
What was the rebellion in 1825 called, where army officers called for constitutional reform after the death of Tsar Alexander I?
what did the next tsar do? who was he
ruthlessly suppressed by Nicholas I
What movement swept across Europe during first half of the 19th C, influencing religion, art, music, and philosophy?
Basic characteristics of Romantic movement?
Freedom of thought, feeling, and action
Romantic vs Enlightenment views of nature
Romantic - inspired by the beauty of nature
Enlightened - relied on scientific method to study and understand nature
Background behind the Reform Bill of 1832
Because times changed and people moved to cities, many electoral districts were outdated and ppl didn't live in those areas while new industrial cities such as Manchester had no representatives.
So, factory owners and merchants pressured the Parliament to create new districts representing urban areas
What is important about the repeal of the Corn Laws?
marked a victory for Britain's urban population and free trade
Who had been restored as king in France by Congress of Vienna?
Who succeeded him and why was he not popular?
- Louis XVIII
- Charles X, but his reactionary(ultraconservative) policies infuriated a lot of people
Where were the major revolutions in Revolutions of 1830?
What happened with the French revolution of 1830
People were dedicated to overthrow tyranny of Charles X. The bourgeoisie prevailed in establishing new constitutional monarchy
What famous painting depicts the spirit of French uprising of 1830 by Eugene Delacroix?
"Liberty Leading the People"
Outcome of the 1830 revolution of Belgium
Belgium was recognized as a neutral state separate from Holland
What were the nationalists in Italian revolution in 1830 called?
were they successful in uniting Italy? why
Not successful. Metternich suppressed it
Causes of the Revolutions of 1848 (IMPORTANT! know ALL)
1. Social tensions created by Industrialization + urbanization
2. radicals and liberals were convinced that repressive Metternich system had outlived its usefulness
3. Italy and Germany yearned for unification
4. national minorities in Austria demanded independence
outcome of the 1848 revolution in France
establishment of Second French Republic with Louis Napoleon as president
who lead revolution in Italy in 1848 and what was the movement called?
was it successful?
Giuseppe Mazzini, "Young Italy"
No, Austrians killed them again
How did the German reform movement in 1848 go?
What was special about England in the midst of these 1848 revolutions?
Peaceful reforms, thus avoided violence
In Austria in 1848, who revolted? successful?