15CHAPTER 14: BRAIN AND CRANIAL NERVES Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 15CHAPTER 14: BRAIN AND CRANIAL NERVES Deck (57)
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1

What is rostral?

toward the nose (forehead)

2

What is caudal?

toward the tail (spinal cord)

3

What are gyri?

folds

4

What are sulci?

grooves

5

What does that longitudinal fissure do?

divides r/l hemispheres

6

What does the corpus callosum do?

connects hemispheres

7

What is grey matter composed of?

cell bodies, dendrites, proximal axons

8

What does grey matter form?

-Forms cortex over cerebrum and cerebellum
-Forms nuclei deep within brain (within white matter)

9

What is white matter composed of?

Composed of tracts (bundles of axons) that connect parts of brain

10

What are the different kinds of meninges?

Dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater

11

What are the two layers of dura mater and where are they?

Periosteal layer- outer, against skull, no epidural space
Meningeal layer- inner, extends to form dura mater around spinal cord

12

Where can you find dural sinuses and what do they collect?

-occur between the two dura layers
-collect blood that has circulated through the brain
-drain blood into internal jugular veins of the neck

13

What are the 2 types of dural sinuses?

Superior sagittal sinus & transverse sinus

14

What separates meningeal dura from arachnoid?

Subdural space

15

What separates arachnoid from pia mater?

Subarachnoid space

16

What is the subarachnoid space filled with?

CSF

17

What are the ventricles lined with?

Ependymal cells (glial cells)

18

What do ependymal cells (glial cells) produce?

CSF

19

Each ventricle contains a ______________.

Choroid plexus

20

What is a choroid plexus and what does it produce?

Network of capillaries, produces CSF

21

What is the choroid plexuses covered with?

Ependymal cells

22

What is CSF’s functions?

-Floats brain so it is neutrally buoyant -Buoyancy
-Cushions brain from hitting inside of skull -protection
-Chemical stability -- rinses away wastes –chemical stability

23

How much CSF does the body produce and absorb in a day?

500 mL

24

What are the 7 locations of circulation of CSF?

1. 2 lateral ventricles (chamber within all 4 lobes of cerebrum
2. Interventricular foramen
3. 3rd ventricle (midsagittal, between thalami)
4. Cerebral aqueduct (midsagittal)
5. 4th ventricle (midsagittal between cerebellum and pons
6. Out to subarachnoid space via 2 lateral and 1 medial aperturesbathes external brain and spinal cord
7. Reabsorbed by arachnoid ville and released into superior sagittal sinus  transverse sinus mixes with blood --> internal jugular vein

25

When does brain damage occur?

4 minutes without blood

26

What does the brain barrier system regulate?

Passage of solutes from blood into tissue fluid of the brain

27

What are the points of entry of the brain barrier system?

1. Blood capillaries throughout brain tissue (Blood-brain barrier)
2. Capillaries of choroid plexuses in the ventricles (Blood-CSF barrier)

28

What is the brain barrier system highly permeable to?

Highly permeable to: H2O, O2, glucose, small lipids, caffeine, alcohol, nicotine, anesthetics, CO2

29

Where is the blood-CSF barrier?

At the choroid plexus lining ventricles

30

What do the ependymal cells join in blood-CSF barriers?

Tight junctions