15Chapter 3&4: Cells and Genetic function Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 15Chapter 3&4: Cells and Genetic function Deck (78)
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1

What are the 3 principle parts of a generalized cell?

1. Plasma Membrane
2. Organelles
3. Cytoplasm

2

What are the two types of membrane proteins?

Integral and Peripheral Proteins

3

What is the difference between integral a and peripheral membrane proteins?

Integral proteins penetrate through the membrane.
Peripheral proteins are on the inner or outer surface.

4

List the functions of the cell membrane.

1. Channel
2. Transport
3. Receptor
4. Enzyme
5. Anchor
6. Identify marker.

5

What is the fluid on the inside of the cell called?

Intercellular Fluid

6

What is the fluid on the outside of the cell called?

Extracellular Fluid

7

Define the terms 'active' and 'passive' with respect to membrane transport.

Active Transport
- involves the movement of materials against the concentration gradient with the use of energy.
Passive Transport
- involves movement from a region of high concentration to a region of low without an expenditure of energy.

8

Osmosis

The diffusion of water molecules through a selective permeable membrane.
-it is the movement of water molecules (the solute) from an area of high concentration to an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration across the membrane.

9

Hypotonic

A lower concentration of solutes and a higher concentration of water occurs.

10

Hypertonic

A lower concentration of water and a higher concentration of solutes occurs.

11

What is the Cytosol of the cell?

-the intercellular fluid is the semifluid portion of cytoplasm.
-Made of 75-90% water, plus proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and inorganic substances.
-Where many metabolic reactions occur.

12

Describe the structure of the nucleus.

A spherical structure surrounded by a double membrane, and contains the nucleolus and chromatin.

-includes nuclear envelope, nucleoli, and genetic material (DNA).

13

Structure and location of ribosomes.

-Tiny spheres that consist of ribosomal RNA and several ribosomal proteins.
-Occurs free (singly or in clusters) or together with endoplasmic reticulum.
-Sites of protein synthesis

14

What are the structure and function of lysosomes

structure: membrane-bound sacs with digestive enzymes, acid pH
function: -digests nutrients, phagocytized bacteria and old organelles (autophagy)

15

What is the function of the microtubules?

Help to determine cell shape and function in the intracellular transport of organelles and migration of chromosomes during cell divisions.

16

What is the primary function of cilia?

To move materials over the surface of cell located in the lining of resperatory tract and fallopian tube.

17

Cytoskeleton proteins with the smallest diameter are called _______.

Microfilaments

18

Transcription

The copying of a base sequence of DNA into a base sequence of RNA.

19

Translation

The use of the base sequence of mRNA to assemble the corresponding sequence of amino acids.

20

From DNA to RNA:
C-T-T-A-G-A-G-A-T-G

G-A-A-U-C-U-C-U-A-C

21

Cytokeleton

A network of several kinds of protein filaments that extend throughout the cytoplasm and provide a structural framework for the cell.
--consists of microfilaments, intermediate filaments and mircotubules.

22

The process of transcription provides which 3 types od RNA

1. Messenger (mRNA)
2. Ribosomal (rRNA)
3. Transfer (tRNA)

23

Anticodon

A sequence of 3 nucleotides on a tRNA molecule;
which allows tRNA to bind to a specific sequence of 3 nucleotides on the mRNA.

24

A cell spends most of its life in what stage of the life cycle?

interphase

25

Mitosis

Division of the nucleus

26

Cytokinesis

Division of the cytoplasm

27

What is the function of a gene?

Determines the amino acid sequence of a protein.

28

Gene

A specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA.

29

Termination (stop) Codon

A 3 nucleotide sequence in mRNA that signifies the end of the message.

30

Which cell organelle is the site of fatty acid, phospholipid, and steroid synthesis?

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum