15Chapter 3&4: Cells and Genetic function Flashcards Preview

Anatomy and Physiology > 15Chapter 3&4: Cells and Genetic function > Flashcards

Flashcards in 15Chapter 3&4: Cells and Genetic function Deck (78):
1

What are the 3 principle parts of a generalized cell?

1. Plasma Membrane
2. Organelles
3. Cytoplasm

2

What are the two types of membrane proteins?

Integral and Peripheral Proteins

3

What is the difference between integral a and peripheral membrane proteins?

Integral proteins penetrate through the membrane.
Peripheral proteins are on the inner or outer surface.

4

List the functions of the cell membrane.

1. Channel
2. Transport
3. Receptor
4. Enzyme
5. Anchor
6. Identify marker.

5

What is the fluid on the inside of the cell called?

Intercellular Fluid

6

What is the fluid on the outside of the cell called?

Extracellular Fluid

7

Define the terms 'active' and 'passive' with respect to membrane transport.

Active Transport
- involves the movement of materials against the concentration gradient with the use of energy.
Passive Transport
- involves movement from a region of high concentration to a region of low without an expenditure of energy.

8

Osmosis

The diffusion of water molecules through a selective permeable membrane.
-it is the movement of water molecules (the solute) from an area of high concentration to an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration across the membrane.

9

Hypotonic

A lower concentration of solutes and a higher concentration of water occurs.

10

Hypertonic

A lower concentration of water and a higher concentration of solutes occurs.

11

What is the Cytosol of the cell?

-the intercellular fluid is the semifluid portion of cytoplasm.
-Made of 75-90% water, plus proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and inorganic substances.
-Where many metabolic reactions occur.

12

Describe the structure of the nucleus.

A spherical structure surrounded by a double membrane, and contains the nucleolus and chromatin.

-includes nuclear envelope, nucleoli, and genetic material (DNA).

13

Structure and location of ribosomes.

-Tiny spheres that consist of ribosomal RNA and several ribosomal proteins.
-Occurs free (singly or in clusters) or together with endoplasmic reticulum.
-Sites of protein synthesis

14

What are the structure and function of lysosomes

structure: membrane-bound sacs with digestive enzymes, acid pH
function: -digests nutrients, phagocytized bacteria and old organelles (autophagy)

15

What is the function of the microtubules?

Help to determine cell shape and function in the intracellular transport of organelles and migration of chromosomes during cell divisions.

16

What is the primary function of cilia?

To move materials over the surface of cell located in the lining of resperatory tract and fallopian tube.

17

Cytoskeleton proteins with the smallest diameter are called _______.

Microfilaments

18

Transcription

The copying of a base sequence of DNA into a base sequence of RNA.

19

Translation

The use of the base sequence of mRNA to assemble the corresponding sequence of amino acids.

20

From DNA to RNA:
C-T-T-A-G-A-G-A-T-G

G-A-A-U-C-U-C-U-A-C

21

Cytokeleton

A network of several kinds of protein filaments that extend throughout the cytoplasm and provide a structural framework for the cell.
--consists of microfilaments, intermediate filaments and mircotubules.

22

The process of transcription provides which 3 types od RNA

1. Messenger (mRNA)
2. Ribosomal (rRNA)
3. Transfer (tRNA)

23

Anticodon

A sequence of 3 nucleotides on a tRNA molecule;
which allows tRNA to bind to a specific sequence of 3 nucleotides on the mRNA.

24

A cell spends most of its life in what stage of the life cycle?

interphase

25

Mitosis

Division of the nucleus

26

Cytokinesis

Division of the cytoplasm

27

What is the function of a gene?

Determines the amino acid sequence of a protein.

28

Gene

A specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA.

29

Termination (stop) Codon

A 3 nucleotide sequence in mRNA that signifies the end of the message.

30

Which cell organelle is the site of fatty acid, phospholipid, and steroid synthesis?

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

31

When equilibrium is obtained in diffusion, random moleculae motion continues but what stops?

Net Diffusion

32

Which lipids compose approximately 3/4 of the lipids in the plasma membrane of the human cell?

Phospholipids

33

The cellular contents located between the outer limiting membrane of the cell and its nucleus is/are collectively known as _______.

Cytoplasm

34

The only example of a flagellum in the human body is in the _______.

Tail of the sperm cell

35

Human cells are basically factories that provide large numbers of diverse what?

Proteins

36

In bulk-phase endosytosis, the cell membrane folds inward and forms a _________ vesicle, which allows a droplet of extracellular fluid to flow inward and then surround the liquid.

Pinocytic

37

In ______, pseudopods surround large, solid particles outside the cell and engulf them.

exocytosis

38

In metaphase, the centromeres of the chromatid pairs line up at what plane region?

Equatorial plane region

39

What happens to cells in hypotonic solutions?

Absorb water, swell and even burst

40

What happens to cell in isotonic solutions

No change

41

What happens to a cell in a hypertonic solution?

Loses waste and shrinks

42

What cell shape is best for diffusion?

squamous

43

What cell shape is best for communication?

stellate

44

What is the hydrophilic portion of the phospholipid bilayer made of?

phosphates

45

What is the hydrophobic portion of the phospholipid bilayer made of?

fatty acids

46

What are the 3 types of gated membrane channels?

1. Ligand-regulated gated ion channels
2. Voltage-regulated gates ion channels
3. Mechanically regulated gated ion channels

47

What is the structure and function of the glycocalyx?

structure: -external to plasma membrane
-carbohydrate coat on the cell surface
-chemically unique in everyone
function: -immunity
-cell recognition and adhesion

48

What is the structure and function of microvilli?

structure: -extensions of the plasma membrane
-actin filaments at the base
function: -increases cells surface
-increases absorption

49

What is actin?

a protein that functions in movement

50

What is the structure and function of cilia?

structure: -hairlike projections (5x longer than microvilli)
-full of mircotubules
function: -move substances outside the cell

51

What are the 5 types of membrane transport?

1. filtration
2. simple diffusion
3. osmosis
4. carrier-mediated transport
5. vesicular transport

52

What are the 3 types of carriers?

1. uniport (1 solute at a time)
2. symport (= or >2 in the same direction)
3. antiport (= or >2 in different direction)

53

What is transcytosis?

in one side of the cell and out the other

54

What is exocytosis?

secretions of substance made in the cell.

55

What is the structure and function of both types of endoplasmic reticulum?

structure: membrane-bound, interconnected channels (cisterna)
function: Rough ER= (ribosomes)= protein and phospholipid synthesis
Smooth ER= steroid synthesis, detoxification, and calcium storage

56

What is the structure and function of the golgi complex?

structure: membrane-bound, flattened sacs
function: -carbohydrate synthesis
-modification of proteins

57

What is the structure and function of perioxisomes?

structure: membrane-bound sacs with free radical scavengers (H2O2)
functions: -neutralize free radicals
-detoxification of alcohol
-fatty acid hydrolysis

58

What is the structure and function of mitochondria?

structure: -membrane-bound
-linner membrane is highly convoluted (cristae)
function: -cellular respiration (glucose --> ATP)

59

What is the structure and function of centrioles?

structure: -cylinder of microtubules
function: -cell division
-forms the basal body of cilia

60

What is the building block of microfilaments?

Actin

61

What is the building block of intermediate filaments?

Keratin

62

What is the building block of microtubules?

Tubulin

63

What is the clear, structureless gel in a cell called?

Cytosol

64

What is a Na+-K+ pump?

A transmembrane protein

65

Cells specialized for absorption of matter from the ECF are likely to show an abundance of _______.

Microvilli

66

Aquaporins are transmembrane proteins that promote what?

Osmosis

67

Membrane carriers resemble enzymes except for what reason?

carriers do not chemically change their ligands

68

Where does the contrasport of glucose derive energy from?

a Na+ concentration gradient

69

What is the function of cAMP in a cell?

to activate kinases

70

What are most cellular membranes made by?

the endoplasmic reticulum

71

What is production of more than one phenotypic trait by a single gene called?

Pheiotropy

72

When a ribosome reads a codon on mRNA, it must bind to the _____ of a corresponding tRNA.

Anticodon

73

The normal functions of a liver cell- synthesizing proteins, detoxifying wastes, storing glycogen, and so forth- in what phase?

G phase

74

Genetic transcription is performed by ___________.

RNA polymerase

75

When does a chaperone come into play?

the folding of a new protein into its tertiary structure

76

An allele that is not phenotypically expressed in the presence of an alternative allele of the same gene is said to be __________.

Recessive

77

When do semiconservative replications occur?

the S phase of the cell cycle

78

What is the cytoplasmic division at the end of mitosis called?

cytokinesis