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Glucose clearance - describe

glucose at a normal plasma level is completely reabsorbed in proximal concoluted tubule bby Na+/ glucose contrasport


glucose in serum ( normally)

fasting : 70 -110 mg / dL (3.8-6.1 mmmol/L )
2h postprandial : less τηαν 120 mg/dL , less than 6.6 mmol /L


glucose in cerebrospinal fluid

40-70 mg/dL
2.2-3.9 mmol/L


glucose in urine - concrentations ( adults

In adults, at plasmaglucose of 200 mg / dL --> glucosouria begins . At rate 375 mg/ min , all transporters are fully saturated


glucosuria is an importan t clinical clue to

diabetes mellitus


glucose clearance - splay ?

is the region of substance clearance between threshold and Tm --> it is due to heterogeneity of nephrons


glucose clearance - pregnancy

normal pregnancy may decreae ability of proximal conluted tubule to reabsorb glucose and aminoacids --> glucosouria and aminoaciduria


mechanism that induce glucosouria and aminoaciduria in normal pregnancy

normal pregnancy may decrease ability of proximal convoluted tubule to reabsorb glucose and aminoacids


• In the nephron, glucose is ___ (partially/fully) reabsorbed in ___ the (proximal/distal) tubules via Na+/glucose cotransporters.

Fully; proximal


• When plasma glucose levels exceed 200 mg/dL, what finding may result on urinalysis? What disease process is usually suspected?

Glucosuria, because proximal tubule glucose reabsorption mechanisms cannot keep up with the elevated glucose load; diabetes mellitus


• A diabetic's blood sugar is 275 mg/dL; the urine is positive for glucose. Can proximal tubule pumps handle further blood-sugar increases?

Yes—the glucose threshold of 200 mg/dL has been passed, but the transporters are not fully saturated (Tm) until the level passes 375 mg/dL


• Glucosuria and aminoaciduria develop in a pregnant woman. Do you immediately diagnose diabetes?

No—normal pregnancy decreases reabsorption of glucose and amino acids in the proximal tubule, resulting in glucosuria and aminoaciduria

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