1.7 Carbohydrate Structure and Digestion Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1.7 Carbohydrate Structure and Digestion Deck (28):
0

3 main categories of Carbohydrates

1. Monosaccharides
2. Oligosaccharides
3. Polysaccharides

1

Two epimers of D-Glucose

D-Mannose (epimer at C-2)
D-Galactose (epimer at C-4)

2

In the Hemi acetal (cyclic structure) what parts of the carbohydrate bond to each other to become cyclic

Carbonyl group covalently bonds to OH group

3

T or F, The cyclic structure of Carbohydrates are more stable than open chain structure

True

4

Pyranose has how many carbons involved in the ring?

6 membered ring

5

Which is the less prevalent cyclic structure?

Furanose (5 membered rings)

6

alpha linkages on anomeric carbon has the OH below or above the plane

Below

7

Which anomeric linkage has the OH above the plane?

beta linkage

8

What is a glycoside

It is technically a disaccharide. It is formed when OH group attached on an Anomeric carbon condenses with a group on another monosaccharide

9

What type of linkages are involved with Starch?

alpha-1,4 and alpha-1,6.

10

Cellulose has what type of linkages?

beta-1,4 linkages.

11

Is Cellulose branched or unbranched

Unbranched

12

What are the linkages of Glycogen

alpha-1,4 and alpha-1,6. Highly branched!

13

What sugars are found in starch

Amylose (alpha-1,4) and Amylopectin (alpha-1,6)

14

Where is Salivary Amylase found?

In the mouth

15

What does Salivary Amylase digest?

alpha-1,4 linkages

16

What enzyme of digestion is found in the lumen of small intestine

Pancreatic Amylase

17

What are the digestion products of starch after it has been broken down by amylase?

Dextrins, Maltose, Isomaltose

18

Name the brush border enzymes

Sucrase
Lactase
Maltase
Isomaltase

19

Purpose of Brush border enzymes

Break down disaccharides to monosaccharides

20

4 functions of Cellulose

1. Increase stool volume
2. Increase stool softness
3. Decrease transit time
4. Increase Satiety

21

Two results of undigested carbohydrates (disaccharides?) passing into large intestine

1. Osmotic Diarrhea
2. Bacterial fermentation of carbs to 2 & 3 carbon fragments plus CO2 and H2 gas

22

Sucrose is made up of what two sugars?

Glucose and Fructose

23

Lactose is made up of what two sugars

Glucose and Galactose

24

What sugars make up Cellulose

Glucose with beta-1,4 linkages

25

Maltose sugars?

Glucose (alpha-1,4 linkages)

26

Outline the association between oral bacteria, sucrose (carbs) and tooth decay

1. S. Mutans can cleave Sucrose into Fructose & Glucose
2. Fructose is used by the bacteria as a source of anaerobic energy
3. Glucose is polymerized into Dextran which helps attach bacteria to tooth enamel.
4. Dextran can be broken down into glucose producing lactic acid and tooth decay

27

What is the most common disaccharidase deficiency

Lactase, Lactose intolerance