Flashcards in 1.7 Carbohydrate Structure and Digestion Deck (28):
3 main categories of Carbohydrates
Two epimers of D-Glucose
D-Mannose (epimer at C-2)
D-Galactose (epimer at C-4)
In the Hemi acetal (cyclic structure) what parts of the carbohydrate bond to each other to become cyclic
Carbonyl group covalently bonds to OH group
T or F, The cyclic structure of Carbohydrates are more stable than open chain structure
Pyranose has how many carbons involved in the ring?
6 membered ring
Which is the less prevalent cyclic structure?
Furanose (5 membered rings)
alpha linkages on anomeric carbon has the OH below or above the plane
Which anomeric linkage has the OH above the plane?
What is a glycoside
It is technically a disaccharide. It is formed when OH group attached on an Anomeric carbon condenses with a group on another monosaccharide
What type of linkages are involved with Starch?
alpha-1,4 and alpha-1,6.
Cellulose has what type of linkages?
Is Cellulose branched or unbranched
What are the linkages of Glycogen
alpha-1,4 and alpha-1,6. Highly branched!
What sugars are found in starch
Amylose (alpha-1,4) and Amylopectin (alpha-1,6)
Where is Salivary Amylase found?
In the mouth
What does Salivary Amylase digest?
What enzyme of digestion is found in the lumen of small intestine
What are the digestion products of starch after it has been broken down by amylase?
Dextrins, Maltose, Isomaltose
Name the brush border enzymes
Purpose of Brush border enzymes
Break down disaccharides to monosaccharides
4 functions of Cellulose
1. Increase stool volume
2. Increase stool softness
3. Decrease transit time
4. Increase Satiety
Two results of undigested carbohydrates (disaccharides?) passing into large intestine
1. Osmotic Diarrhea
2. Bacterial fermentation of carbs to 2 & 3 carbon fragments plus CO2 and H2 gas
Sucrose is made up of what two sugars?
Glucose and Fructose
Lactose is made up of what two sugars
Glucose and Galactose
What sugars make up Cellulose
Glucose with beta-1,4 linkages
Glucose (alpha-1,4 linkages)
Outline the association between oral bacteria, sucrose (carbs) and tooth decay
1. S. Mutans can cleave Sucrose into Fructose & Glucose
2. Fructose is used by the bacteria as a source of anaerobic energy
3. Glucose is polymerized into Dextran which helps attach bacteria to tooth enamel.
4. Dextran can be broken down into glucose producing lactic acid and tooth decay