1.7 Genetic Variation And Its Control Flashcards Preview

AQA GCSE - Biology > 1.7 Genetic Variation And Its Control > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1.7 Genetic Variation And Its Control Deck (31)
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1

What is a gamete?

Sex cells

2

Where is a chromosome found?

In the nucleus

3

What do chromosomes have?

Threads of DNA structures carrying genes

4

Do chromosomes tend to be in pairs or alone?

Pairs

5

How many chromosomes does a normal human body cell have?

46

6

How many chromosomes do you get from your mother and father separately?

23 or half from each

7

What are body cells called?

Diploid

8

What is a gene?

A short section of DNA carrying genetic infection for a certain protein

9

What do different genes do?

Control different characteristics

10

What are characteristics affected by?

Genetics and environment

11

Name only genetic characteristics

Eye colour
Blood type
Tongue roll

12

Name only environmental characteristics

Accent
Tattoo
Scar

13

Name genetic and environmental characteristics

Height
Personality
Body mass
IQ

14

What are the two forms of reproduction?

Sexual and Asexual reproduction

15

What is sexual reproduction?

The fusion of male and female gametes

16

What does sexual reproduction lead to?

Variety in offspring

17

What is Asexual reproduction?

No fusion of gametes
Only one parent needed
No mix of genetic information
No variety therefore genetically identical
A clone of the parent

18

Name two types of plant cloning

Cutting
Tissue Culture

19

What is cutting?

Cut a branch close to the stem to maximise cells at an angle
Plant in another pot with soil and sand
Dip in Auxins to help the growth

20

What is tissue culture?

Take a scrapping of a leaf
Grow scrapping on a nutrient medium
Cells will grow into individual little plants
They will eventually grow into big plants

21

Which of the plant cloning is faster?

Cutting

22

Which of the plant cloning gives less damage to the plant?

Tissue culture

23

Name the two types of animal cloning?

Embryo transplantation
Fusion cell cloning

24

Describe embryo transplantation

Sperm is artificially inseminated into the female
Embryos are extracted from the female
Tease/split the cells apart before they become specialised
They are transplanted into a surrogate
The offspring is genetically identical

25

Describe fusion cell cloning

Remove a body cell from a male and keep the nucleus discarding the rest
Remove an egg cell from a female of the same species and remove the nucleus (left with enucleated cell)
Combine the two in a petri dish
To fertilise the cell you shock it with electricity causing the zygote to divide into an embryo
The embryo is implanted into a surrogate developing at an early stage
The offspring is genetically identical to the male

26

What is genetic engineering?

Altering the genes in plant or animal cells

27

What are crops called when they have been genetically engineered?

Genetically modified crops

28

What are herbicides?

Plants resistant to insect attacks

29

Describe genetic engineering of a bacteria

Extract the plasmid from the bacteria
Cut out the gene you want using an enzyme
Cut a section of the plasmid away using an enzyme
Insert the required gene into the section of the plasmid and glue it together using an enzyme
Put the new plasmid into a bacteria cell and place in a fermenter to let it divide

30

What are the advantages of GM crops?

Higher yield
Less time and energy putting toxins on crops