What is a gamete?
Where is a chromosome found?
In the nucleus
What do chromosomes have?
Threads of DNA structures carrying genes
Do chromosomes tend to be in pairs or alone?
How many chromosomes does a normal human body cell have?
How many chromosomes do you get from your mother and father separately?
23 or half from each
What are body cells called?
What is a gene?
A short section of DNA carrying genetic infection for a certain protein
What do different genes do?
Control different characteristics
What are characteristics affected by?
Genetics and environment
Name only genetic characteristics
Name only environmental characteristics
Name genetic and environmental characteristics
What are the two forms of reproduction?
Sexual and Asexual reproduction
What is sexual reproduction?
The fusion of male and female gametes
What does sexual reproduction lead to?
Variety in offspring
What is Asexual reproduction?
No fusion of gametes Only one parent needed No mix of genetic information No variety therefore genetically identical A clone of the parent
Name two types of plant cloning
What is cutting?
Cut a branch close to the stem to maximise cells at an angle
Plant in another pot with soil and sand
Dip in Auxins to help the growth
What is tissue culture?
Take a scrapping of a leaf
Grow scrapping on a nutrient medium
Cells will grow into individual little plants
They will eventually grow into big plants
Which of the plant cloning is faster?
Which of the plant cloning gives less damage to the plant?
Name the two types of animal cloning?
Fusion cell cloning
Describe embryo transplantation
Sperm is artificially inseminated into the female
Embryos are extracted from the female
Tease/split the cells apart before they become specialised
They are transplanted into a surrogate
The offspring is genetically identical
Describe fusion cell cloning
Remove a body cell from a male and keep the nucleus discarding the rest
Remove an egg cell from a female of the same species and remove the nucleus (left with enucleated cell)
Combine the two in a petri dish
To fertilise the cell you shock it with electricity causing the zygote to divide into an embryo
The embryo is implanted into a surrogate developing at an early stage
The offspring is genetically identical to the male
What is genetic engineering?
Altering the genes in plant or animal cells
What are crops called when they have been genetically engineered?
Genetically modified crops
What are herbicides?
Plants resistant to insect attacks
Describe genetic engineering of a bacteria
Extract the plasmid from the bacteria
Cut out the gene you want using an enzyme
Cut a section of the plasmid away using an enzyme
Insert the required gene into the section of the plasmid and glue it together using an enzyme
Put the new plasmid into a bacteria cell and place in a fermenter to let it divide
What are the advantages of GM crops?
Less time and energy putting toxins on crops
What are the disadvantages of GM crops?
It may affect the biodiversity
We don’t know the long term health effects