Flashcards in 17. Reproduction In Humans Deck (41)
What is the name for the narrow opening between the uterus and the vagina ?
Where is the prostate gland and what is it function?
Where the two sperm ducts join the urethra ; it produces fluid for a sperm to swim in
Explain how ovulation happens ?
An egg bursts out of an ovary, and is caught in the funnel of the oviduct
Where are sperms made ?
In the testes
How does an egg travel along the oviduct ?
Cilia in the wall of the oviduct waft it along
What is the function of prostate gland in the male reproductive system?
It produces fluid called semen that provide sperm cells with nutrients
What is the function of sperm duct?
Sperm passes through the sperm duct to be mixed with fluids produced by the glands before being passed into the urethra for ejaculation.
What is the function of male urethra?
Tube running down the centre of the penis that can carry out urine or semen , a ring of muscle in the urethra prevents the urine and semen from mixing
What is the function of testis?
Contained in a bag of skin ( scrotum ) and produces sperm and testosterone
What is the function of scrotum?
Dad supporting that tests outside the body to ensure sperm are kept at temperature slightly lower than body temperature
What is the function of penis ?
Passes urine out of the body from the bladder and allows semen to pass into the vagina of a women during sexual intercourse.
What is the function of oviduct?
Connects the ovary to the uterus and is lined with ciliated cells to push the released ovum down it.
Fertilization occurs here.
What is the function of ovary?
Contains ova which will mature and develop when hormones are released
What is the function of female uterus ?
Muscular bag with a soft lining where the fertilised egg will be implanted to develop into a fetus
What is the function of cervix?
Ring of muscle at the lower end of the uterus to keep the developing fetus in placed during pregnancy
What is the function of vagina?
Muscular tube that leads to the inside of the woman's body where the name's penis will enter during sexual intercourse and sperm are deposited
What is fertilization?
Fertilization is the fusion of the nuclei from a male gamete and a female gamete
Where does fertilization occurs ?
What are the stages of birth ?
Amniotic sac breaks
Muscles in the uterus wall contract
Baby passes out through vagina
Umbilical cord is tied and cut
Afterbirth is delivered
What is antenatal care?
Antenatal ( before birth), care is the name given to the care and advice given to expectant mothers along the checks on fetal growth and development
What are the advantages of breastfeeding?
- contains right nutrient in right amounts the baby needs
- contains antibodies which prevents infection
-helos develop bond between baby and the mother
- is free
What are the advantages of bottle feeding?
-allows the father and baby to bond
- allows mother more freedom
Disadvantages of breastfeeding?
- if it doesn't come easily to the mother it can contribute to postnatal depression
- responsibility for the feeding the baby is solely with the mother
Disadvantages of bottle feeding?
-risk of infection is increased if bottles and equipment are not properly sterilised
- is expensive
What are the effects of oestrogen on females ?
- breasts develop
-body hair grows
- menstrual cycle begins
- hips get wider
What are the effects of testosterone?
- growth of penis and testes
- growth of facial and body hair
- muscles develop
- voice breaks
- testes start to produce sperm
What is the role of oestrogen during menstrual cycle ?
- stimulates the uterus to develop a lining ( to replace the lining lost during menstruation )
- post-ovulation, inhibits FSH ( follicle stimulating hormone) and LH ( luteinising hormone) in the pituitary gland
What is the role of progesterone in menstrual cycle ?
- maintains and thickens lining of the uterus
- inhibits FSH and LH production
- if fertilization doesn't occur, levels drop and mensuration occurs
What is the role of FSH AND LH in mensuration ?
FSH- stimulates maturation of the egg in the follicles of the ovary
- Stimulates the follicles of the ovary to release oestrogen
LH- at its peak stimulates ovulation
- results in the formation of corpeus lutem