17. Reproduction In Humans Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 17. Reproduction In Humans Deck (41)
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What is the name for the narrow opening between the uterus and the vagina ?



Where is the prostate gland and what is it function?

Where the two sperm ducts join the urethra ; it produces fluid for a sperm to swim in


Explain how ovulation happens ?

An egg bursts out of an ovary, and is caught in the funnel of the oviduct


Where are sperms made ?

In the testes


How does an egg travel along the oviduct ?

Cilia in the wall of the oviduct waft it along


What is the function of prostate gland in the male reproductive system?

It produces fluid called semen that provide sperm cells with nutrients


What is the function of sperm duct?

Sperm passes through the sperm duct to be mixed with fluids produced by the glands before being passed into the urethra for ejaculation.


What is the function of male urethra?

Tube running down the centre of the penis that can carry out urine or semen , a ring of muscle in the urethra prevents the urine and semen from mixing


What is the function of testis?

Contained in a bag of skin ( scrotum ) and produces sperm and testosterone


What is the function of scrotum?

Dad supporting that tests outside the body to ensure sperm are kept at temperature slightly lower than body temperature


What is the function of penis ?

Passes urine out of the body from the bladder and allows semen to pass into the vagina of a women during sexual intercourse.


What is the function of oviduct?

Connects the ovary to the uterus and is lined with ciliated cells to push the released ovum down it.
Fertilization occurs here.


What is the function of ovary?

Contains ova which will mature and develop when hormones are released


What is the function of female uterus ?

Muscular bag with a soft lining where the fertilised egg will be implanted to develop into a fetus


What is the function of cervix?

Ring of muscle at the lower end of the uterus to keep the developing fetus in placed during pregnancy


What is the function of vagina?

Muscular tube that leads to the inside of the woman's body where the name's penis will enter during sexual intercourse and sperm are deposited


What is fertilization?

Fertilization is the fusion of the nuclei from a male gamete and a female gamete


Where does fertilization occurs ?

In oviducts


What are the stages of birth ?

Amniotic sac breaks
Muscles in the uterus wall contract
Cervix dilates
Baby passes out through vagina
Umbilical cord is tied and cut
Afterbirth is delivered


What is antenatal care?

Antenatal ( before birth), care is the name given to the care and advice given to expectant mothers along the checks on fetal growth and development


What are the advantages of breastfeeding?

- contains right nutrient in right amounts the baby needs
- contains antibodies which prevents infection
-helos develop bond between baby and the mother
- is free


What are the advantages of bottle feeding?

-allows the father and baby to bond
- allows mother more freedom


Disadvantages of breastfeeding?

- if it doesn't come easily to the mother it can contribute to postnatal depression
- responsibility for the feeding the baby is solely with the mother


Disadvantages of bottle feeding?

-risk of infection is increased if bottles and equipment are not properly sterilised
- is expensive


What are the effects of oestrogen on females ?

- breasts develop
-body hair grows
- menstrual cycle begins
- hips get wider


What are the effects of testosterone?

- growth of penis and testes
- growth of facial and body hair
- muscles develop
- voice breaks
- testes start to produce sperm


What is the role of oestrogen during menstrual cycle ?

- stimulates the uterus to develop a lining ( to replace the lining lost during menstruation )
- post-ovulation, inhibits FSH ( follicle stimulating hormone) and LH ( luteinising hormone) in the pituitary gland


What is the role of progesterone in menstrual cycle ?

- maintains and thickens lining of the uterus
- inhibits FSH and LH production
- if fertilization doesn't occur, levels drop and mensuration occurs


What is the role of FSH AND LH in mensuration ?

FSH- stimulates maturation of the egg in the follicles of the ovary
- Stimulates the follicles of the ovary to release oestrogen

LH- at its peak stimulates ovulation
- results in the formation of corpeus lutem


How do Contraceptive Hormones in the Pill Work?

They work by mimicking some of the hormone levels during pregnancy
By raising the levels of progesterone and oestrogen, the uterus lining is maintained and development of another egg cell is prevented
This means that sex at any time of the month cannot cause pregnancy as no egg is released to be fertilised