Flashcards in 17: The Transformation of the West, 1450-1750 Deck (38):
-Focus on humankind as center of intellectual and artistic endeavor; method of study that emphasized the superiority of classical forms over medieval styles, in particular the study of ancient languages.
-Cultural and intellectual movement of northern Europe; began later than Italian Renaissance c. 1450; centered in France, Low Countries, England, and Germany; featured greater emphasis on religion than Italian Renaissance.
-King of France in the 16th century; regarded as Renaissance monarch; patron of arts; imposed now controls on Catholic church; ally of Ottoman sultan against Holy Roman Emperor.
-Introduced movable type to western Europe in 15th century; credited with greatly expanded availability of printed books and pamphlets.
-Originated in 15th century among peasants and artisans of western Europe, featuring late marriage age, emphasis on the nuclear family, and a large minority who never married.
-German monk; initiated Protestant Reformation in 1517 by nailing 95 theses to door of Wittenberg church; emphasized primacy of faith over works stressed in Catholic beliefs in 1517; included many varieties of religious beliefs.
-General wave of religious dissent against Catholic church; generally held to have begun with Martin Luther's attack on Catholic beliefs in 1517; included many varieties of religious belief.
-Form of Protestantism set up in England after 1534; established by Henry VIII with himself as head, at least part to obtain a divorce form his first wife; became increasingly Protestant following Henry's death.
-French Protestant who stressed doctrine of predestination; established center of his group at Swiss canton of Geneva; encouraged ideas of wider access to government, wider public education, Calvinism spread from Switzerland to northern Europe and North America.
-Restatement of traditional Catholic beliefs in response to Protestant Reformation; established councils that revived Catholic doctrine and refuted Protestant beliefs.
-A new religious order founded during the Catholic Reformation; active in politics, education, and missionary work; sponsored missions to South America, North America, and Asia.
edict of Nantes
-Grant of tolerance to Protestants in France in 1598; granted only after lengthy civil war between Catholic and Protestant factions.
Thirty Years War
-War within the Holy Roman Empire between German Protestants and their allies (Sweden, Denmark, France) and the emperor and his ally, Spain; ended in 1648 after great destruction with Treaty of Westphalia.
Treaty of Westphalia
-Ended Thirty Years War in 1648; granted right to individual rulers within the Holy Roman Empire to choose their own religion--- either Protestant or Catholic.
English Civil War
-Conflict from 1640 to 1660; featured religious disputes mixed with constitutional issues concerning the powers of the monarchy; ended with restoration of the monarchy in 1660 following execution of previous king.
-Class of working people without access to producing property; typically manufacturing workers, paid laborers in agricultural economy, or urban poor; in Europe, product of economic changes of 16th and 17th centuries.
-Reflected resentment against the poor, uncertainties about religious truth; resulted in death of over 100,000 Europeans between 1590 and 1650; particularly common in Protestant areas.
-Author of The Prince; emphasized realistic discussions of how to seize and maintain power; one of most influential authors of Italian Renaissance.
-Culminated in 17th century; period of empirical advances associated with the development of wider theoretical generalizations; resulted in change of traditional beliefs of Middle Ages.
-Polish monk and astronomer; disproved Hellenistic belief that the earth was at the center of the universe.
-Was an astronomer and mathematician who was a prominent figure in the scientific revolution.
-Published Copernicus's findings; added own discoveries concerning laws of gravity and planetary motion; condemned by the Catholic Church for his work.
-English physician who demonstrated circular movement of blood in animals, function of heart as pump.
-Was an English philosopher, statesman, author, and scientist. He was an influential member of the scientific revolution, and is best known for his work on the scientific method.
-Established importance of skeptical review of all received wisdom; argued that human reason could then develop laws that would explain the fundamental workings of nature.
-English scientist; author of Principia; drew together astronomical and physical observations and wider theories into a neat framework of natural laws; established principles of motion; defined forces of gravity.
-Concept of God current during the Scientific Revolution; role of divinity was to set natural laws in motion, not to regulate once process was begun.
-English philosopher who argued that people could learn everything through senses and reason and that power of government came from the people, not divine right of kings; offered possibility to overthrow tyrants.
-Concept of government developed during the rise of nation-states in western Europe during the 17th century; featured monarchs who passes laws without parliaments, appointed professionalized armies and bureaucracies, established state churches, imposed state economic policies.
-French monarch of the late 17th century who personified absolute monarchy.
-English overthrow of James II in 1688; resulted in affirmation of parliament as having basic sovereignty over the king.
-Originated in England and Holland, 17th century, with kings partially checked by significant legislative powers in parliaments.
Frederick the Great
-Prussian king of the 18th century; attempted to introduce Enlightenment reforms into Germany; built on military and bureaucratic foundations of his predecessors; introduced freedom of religion; increased state control of economy.
-Intellectual movement centered in France during the 18th century; featured scientific advance, application of scientific methods to study of human society; belief that rational laws could describe social behavior.
-Established liberal economics; argued that government should avoid regulation of economy in favor of the operation of market forces.
-A French Enlightenment figure best known for his work on the first encyclopedia.
-Enlightenment feminist thinker in England; argued that new political rights should extend to women.