17: The Transformation of the West, 1450-1750 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 17: The Transformation of the West, 1450-1750 Deck (38):


-Focus on humankind as center of intellectual and artistic endeavor; method of study that emphasized the superiority of classical forms over medieval styles, in particular the study of ancient languages.


Northern Renaissance

-Cultural and intellectual movement of northern Europe; began later than Italian Renaissance c. 1450; centered in France, Low Countries, England, and Germany; featured greater emphasis on religion than Italian Renaissance.


Francis I

-King of France in the 16th century; regarded as Renaissance monarch; patron of arts; imposed now controls on Catholic church; ally of Ottoman sultan against Holy Roman Emperor.


Gutenberg, Johannes

-Introduced movable type to western Europe in 15th century; credited with greatly expanded availability of printed books and pamphlets.


European-style family

-Originated in 15th century among peasants and artisans of western Europe, featuring late marriage age, emphasis on the nuclear family, and a large minority who never married.


Luther, Martin

-German monk; initiated Protestant Reformation in 1517 by nailing 95 theses to door of Wittenberg church; emphasized primacy of faith over works stressed in Catholic beliefs in 1517; included many varieties of religious beliefs.



-General wave of religious dissent against Catholic church; generally held to have begun with Martin Luther's attack on Catholic beliefs in 1517; included many varieties of religious belief.


Anglican church

-Form of Protestantism set up in England after 1534; established by Henry VIII with himself as head, at least part to obtain a divorce form his first wife; became increasingly Protestant following Henry's death.


Calvin, Jean

-French Protestant who stressed doctrine of predestination; established center of his group at Swiss canton of Geneva; encouraged ideas of wider access to government, wider public education, Calvinism spread from Switzerland to northern Europe and North America.


Catholic Reformation

-Restatement of traditional Catholic beliefs in response to Protestant Reformation; established councils that revived Catholic doctrine and refuted Protestant beliefs.



-A new religious order founded during the Catholic Reformation; active in politics, education, and missionary work; sponsored missions to South America, North America, and Asia.


edict of Nantes

-Grant of tolerance to Protestants in France in 1598; granted only after lengthy civil war between Catholic and Protestant factions.


Thirty Years War

-War within the Holy Roman Empire between German Protestants and their allies (Sweden, Denmark, France) and the emperor and his ally, Spain; ended in 1648 after great destruction with Treaty of Westphalia.


Treaty of Westphalia

-Ended Thirty Years War in 1648; granted right to individual rulers within the Holy Roman Empire to choose their own religion--- either Protestant or Catholic.


English Civil War

-Conflict from 1640 to 1660; featured religious disputes mixed with constitutional issues concerning the powers of the monarchy; ended with restoration of the monarchy in 1660 following execution of previous king.



-Class of working people without access to producing property; typically manufacturing workers, paid laborers in agricultural economy, or urban poor; in Europe, product of economic changes of 16th and 17th centuries.


witchcraft perescution

-Reflected resentment against the poor, uncertainties about religious truth; resulted in death of over 100,000 Europeans between 1590 and 1650; particularly common in Protestant areas.


Machiavelli, Niccolo

-Author of The Prince; emphasized realistic discussions of how to seize and maintain power; one of most influential authors of Italian Renaissance.


Scientific Revolution

-Culminated in 17th century; period of empirical advances associated with the development of wider theoretical generalizations; resulted in change of traditional beliefs of Middle Ages.



-Polish monk and astronomer; disproved Hellenistic belief that the earth was at the center of the universe.


Johannes Kepler

-Was an astronomer and mathematician who was a prominent figure in the scientific revolution.



-Published Copernicus's findings; added own discoveries concerning laws of gravity and planetary motion; condemned by the Catholic Church for his work.


Harvey, William

-English physician who demonstrated circular movement of blood in animals, function of heart as pump.


Francis Bacon

-Was an English philosopher, statesman, author, and scientist. He was an influential member of the scientific revolution, and is best known for his work on the scientific method.


Descartes, Rene

-Established importance of skeptical review of all received wisdom; argued that human reason could then develop laws that would explain the fundamental workings of nature.


Newton, Issac

-English scientist; author of Principia; drew together astronomical and physical observations and wider theories into a neat framework of natural laws; established principles of motion; defined forces of gravity.



-Concept of God current during the Scientific Revolution; role of divinity was to set natural laws in motion, not to regulate once process was begun.


Locke, John

-English philosopher who argued that people could learn everything through senses and reason and that power of government came from the people, not divine right of kings; offered possibility to overthrow tyrants.


absolute monarchy

-Concept of government developed during the rise of nation-states in western Europe during the 17th century; featured monarchs who passes laws without parliaments, appointed professionalized armies and bureaucracies, established state churches, imposed state economic policies.


Louis XIV

-French monarch of the late 17th century who personified absolute monarchy.


Glorious Revolution

-English overthrow of James II in 1688; resulted in affirmation of parliament as having basic sovereignty over the king.


parliamentary monarchy

-Originated in England and Holland, 17th century, with kings partially checked by significant legislative powers in parliaments.


Frederick the Great

-Prussian king of the 18th century; attempted to introduce Enlightenment reforms into Germany; built on military and bureaucratic foundations of his predecessors; introduced freedom of religion; increased state control of economy.



-Intellectual movement centered in France during the 18th century; featured scientific advance, application of scientific methods to study of human society; belief that rational laws could describe social behavior.


Smith, Adam

-Established liberal economics; argued that government should avoid regulation of economy in favor of the operation of market forces.


Denis Diderot

-A French Enlightenment figure best known for his work on the first encyclopedia.


Wollstonecraft, Mary

-Enlightenment feminist thinker in England; argued that new political rights should extend to women.


mass consumerism

-Mass consumerism refers to the spread of deep interest in acquiring material goods with a growing economic capacity to afford some of these goods. While hints of mass consumerism can be found in several premodern societies, it developed most clearly, beginning in Western Europe, from the 18th century onward.

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