18-20 Flashcards Preview

Sociology > 18-20 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 18-20 Deck (66):
1

Family of orientation

The family in which one grows up consisting of oneself and ones parents and siblings

2

Family of procreation

The family that one establishes through marriage consisting of oneself and ones spouse and children

3

Nuclear family

Composed of one or two parents and their children

4

Extended family

Composed of parents and children. As well as other kin

5

Arranged marriages

Marriage in which partners are selected by a couples parents

6

Marriage

A legal relationship, usually involving economic cooperation, sexual activity and childbearing

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Monogamy

United two partners

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Serial monogamy

A person may have several spouses in his it here life but only one at a time

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Polygamy

United a person with two or more spouses

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Polygyny

Two or more women

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Polyandry

Two or more men in

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Patriarchal

Men dominate in family in decision making

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Matriarchal

Women dominate in family in decision making

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Egalitarian family

Spouses are regarded as equals

15

Cohabitation

Sharing of a household by an unmarried couple

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Domestic partnerships

Household partnerships in which an unmarried couple lives together in a committed, sexually intimate relationship and is granted the same rights and benefits

17

Infertility

Inability to conceive after a year of unprotected sexual relations

18

Adoption

Legal process through which the rights and duties of parenting are transferred from a child's biological and or legal parents to a new parent or legal parent

19

Divorce

Legal process of dissolving a marriage that allows former spouses to remarry if they so choose

20

Profane

An ordinary element of everyday life

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Sacred

Something set apart as extraordinary, inspiring awe and reverence

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Religion

Social institution involving beliefs and practices based on recognizing the sacred

23

Manifest functions

Are those that are open and stated

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Latent functions

Are unintended, covert or hidden

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Religious beliefs

Statements to which members of a particular religion adhere

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Religious rituals

Practices required or expected of members of a faith

27

Church

Type of religious organization that is well integrated into the larger society

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Sect

Type of religious organization that stands apart from the larger society

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Cult

Religious organization that is largely outside a society's cultural traditions

30

Ethicalism

Emphasizes moral principles as guides for living a religious life

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Animism

The belief that elements of the natural world are conscious life forms that affect humanity

32

Simple supernaturalism

The belief that supernatural is the belief that supernatural forces affect people's lives positively or negatively

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Secularization

Historical decline in the importance of the supernatural and sacred

34

Education

The social institution through which society provides its member with important knowledge

35

Hidden curriculum

Refers to standards of behavior that are deemed proper by society and are taught subtly in school

36

Tracking

Assignment to different types of educational programs often on the basis of their test scores and other criteria

37

Functional literacy

A lack of the reading and writing skills needed for everyday living

38

Desegregation

The abolition of legally sanctioned racial ethnic segregation

39

Integration

The implementation of specific action to change the racial ethnic and or class composition of the student body

40

Age stratification

Unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege among people at different stags of the life course

41

Ageism

Prejudice and discrimination against older people

42

Senescence

The natural physical process of aging

43

Disengagement Theory

To the idea that society functions in an orderly way by removing people from positions of responsibility as they reach old age

44

Activity Theory

The idea that a high level of activity increases personal satisfaction in old age

45

Euthanasia

Assisting in the death of a person suffering from an incurable disease

46

5 stages

Denial

47

Sex

Refers to the biological distinction between females and males

48

Gender

Refers to the personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being male and female

49

Primary sex characteristics

Organs used for reproduction

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Secondary sex characteristics

Bodily differences apart from the genitals

51

Objectification

The process whereby some people treat other individuals as if they were objects or things

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Gender stratification

The unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege between men and women

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Gender roles

Attitudes and activities that a society links to each sex

54

Sexual orientation

A persons romantic and emotional attraction to another person

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Homophobia

discomfort over close personal interaction with people thought to be gay, lesbian, or bisexual

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Intersexual

Human beings with some combination of female and male characteristics

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Transsexual

People who feel they are one sex even though biologically they are the other

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Transgender

Appearing or behaving in ways that challenge conventional cultural norms concerning how females and males should look and act

59

Body conscious

How a person perceived and feels about his or her body

60

Anorexia

A person has lost 25% of body weight due to the compulsive fear or becoming fat

61

Bulimia

A person binges by consuming large quantities of food and then purges the food by induced vomiting, excessive exercise, laxatives or fasting

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Obesity

Individuals are 20% or more above their desirable weight

63

Sexism

The belief that one sex is innately superior to the other

64

Sexual harassment

Comments, gestures or physical contacts or a sexual nature that are deliberate, repeated, and unwelcome

65

Gender Bias

Behavior that shows favoritism toward one gender over the other

66

Family

A social institution found in all societies that unites people in cooperative groups to care for one another including any children