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Natural gas is primarily blank

Methane (more than 90%)

Can include up to 5% ethane


The presence of blank and natural gas can sometimes be used by fire departments and utility companies to pinpoint the source of persistent gas odors that have no apparent source



As little as ____ % of gas in the air can be detected.



As little as blank of odorant can treat up to 1,000,000 ft.³ of natural gas

One quarter pound


What is the vapor density of natural gas



Natural gas emergencies can be divided into the following three basic categories: inside leaks, outside leaks, and weeks resulting from fires. Although each kind has its own dangers and unusual concerns, the greatest danger results from?

Interior gas leaks because of the potential for explosion

Outside leaks are the next most dangerous


Gas is shipped from Wells across the United States via large diameter, high-pressure transmission pipelines. These transmission lines operate at pressures of?



Because of the large diameter of the lines, the lengths between valves, in the high pressure at which they operate, considerable blank will result in leakage for an extended period Even after the valves have been shut off

Line pack


Natural gas: no attempts should be made to close any valves without specific direction of?

Knowledgeable pipeline personnel


Gas is received by the local utilities at various points along the pipeline, called?

City gate stations


City gate stations reduce the pressure from the pipelines down to the utility companies transmission system pressure of blank to blank



Natural gas: the pressures in the distribution system very according to the type and age. The older systems are known as low-pressure systems, operating at?

1/4 psi


The pressures in the distribution systems very according to type and age in newer systems, the pressure in the street mains is higher, between blank and blank and is termed high-pressure gas

2 1/2-60 psi


Natural gas: there are two kinds of regulators. The newer ones are blank to maintain a steady one quarter PSI against a diaphragm. The older kind is called blank


dead weight regulator


Regulators located inside a building have the vent line piped out through the blank or blank to make sure that gas from a regulator failure doesn't build up indoors

Peck vent or fisher vent


Fire department units can recognize a regulator failure by the gas odor, as well as the hissing sound coming from the vent. The following actions should be undertaken in such an instance:

One. Notify the utility.

Two. Shut off the gas.

Three. Search the involved premises for fire extension, build up of gas, and overcome victim.

Four. Vent the area as needed


One problem with natural gas utilities that truly brings with it the potential for mass disaster and casualties is the failure of a?

District regulator, which is found on all types of gas distribution systems.


When a blank fails in the open position, the pressure on the downstream side is increased, resulting in overpressure to every gas service in the area

District regulator


District regulator failure: fire personnel particularly blank, may be the first to recognize what has happened from the sudden pattern of alarms being received.



What actions must be taken in the event of a natural gas leak in a structure? In what order and by whom? Any plan of action should include the following:

One. Notify the utility and request their estimated time of arrival.

Two. Determine the intensity of the leak and when it was first noticed.

Three. Determine the extent of the evacuation required.

Four. Eliminate the source of ignition.

Five. Locate the source and stop the flow.

Six. Search and ventilate


The first priority on report of a gas leak should be?

Notify the utility


For faint odors , always check blank as a first action

The condition of pilot lights as a first action


Natural gas has a flammable range of blank in air



Natural gas: of all the decisions to be made, where to stop the leak blank has the most variables

Inside or outside


Natural gas: underground leaks tend to blank before they are discovered

Migrate great distances. This is especially true in areas that are largely paved over.


Many outside leaks are caused by contractors escalating the area. Generally, the safest course of action is to:

Number one. Notified utility.

Number two. Approach from upwind.

Number three. Stop the sources of ignition.

Number four. Await the utility.


Natural gas: under no circumstances should fire department personnel ever try to stop a leak in a?

Plastic pipe


Natural gas: plastic pipe is an insulator, however, it is probable that the pipe will have a static charge of up to blank

30,000 volts


The vapor density of propane is?



The vapor density of butane is?



In times of high demand natural gas maybe supplemented with propane or butane. These are called?

Peak shaving gases


One of the first things that happens when flame exposes the upper part of the cylinder is?

Pressure begins to rise inside


Propane turns into gas at blank temperature



The pressure inside a propane cylinder is directly related to the?

The temperature of the liquid inside of it.

At 70°F, the pressure in the cylinder is about 100 PSI.


A blank occurs when a liquid above it's boiling point is released suddenly from its container and the superheated liquid expands rapidly to become a vapor



The only way to prevent a blank is to keep the metal shell from overheating



BLEVE the hazard of the typical barbecue grill clear the area for at least blank feet in all directions



LPG tank leaks: as the distance between the nozzle and the cylinder decreases the angle of the fog pattern must be?



LPG tank leaks: extinguishing the fire is recommended in blank?

Built up areas where Gas can accumulate and find sources of ignition


LPG tank leak: all members should be aware of the consequences of an uncontrolled leak and then what to do about it, since quite often the fire is inadvertently extinguished in the initial attack. In this event?

Continue applying fog streams to direct the gases away from danger spots such as cellar windows, as well as to dilute the gas concentration


Heating systems account for blank percent of all fires



Number blank oil is the most common oil for one and two family homes.



Number blank oil may be used in midsize applications, apartment buildings, and factories and has a somewhat higher minimum flashpoint



Number blank and blank oil are primarily industrial oils used in large plants and apartment complexes

5 and 6


The components of an oil burner are divided into the following two systems:

Oil handling and controls


Oil handling system: the most common burner is the?

High-pressure gun type


High-pressure gun type: the pump supplies oil to the nozzle at pressures ranging from blank in homes to blank and large installations




The control system: it has a safety circuit, which shuts down the pump and fan if the igniter malfunctions or fails to light after blank

90 sec


Oil burners: the blank is extremely important to the fire department, for it is the preferred means of interrupting the operation of the burner.

The remote control or emergency switch


Oil burners: the main purpose of the blank is to act as a safeguard, keeping the oil and air mixture from building up in the box if no fire is present

Stack switch


Each gallon of number two oil must be mixed with almost blank air to burn efficiently

2000 ft.³


The least common oil burner response is also the most dangerous what is it?

The white ghost


Blank is a cloud of vaporized oil and air heated above it's flashpoint and out of its container, looking for a source of ignition

White ghost


As with all oil burner incidents, you should direct the responsible person in charge of the building, preferably in writing to have the burner?

Inspected by a qualified repair man


Black smoke suggests the presence of burning?

Petroleum-based products


Large volumes of dense, Blacksmoke at the level of the roof could signal?

Involvement of roofing materials


Light to moderate quantities of black smoke in basements often indicate?

Oil burner malfunction and should probably firefighters to bring a class B extinguisher with them


Historically, black smoke from the interior of the residential building often that the presence of accelerants, but is clueless no longer reliable because of?



Common class A materials will produce a blank smoke when oxygen is present

Gray to light brown


Common class A materials when less than sufficient oxygen is available, large amounts of blank smoke are produced. This is an indication of potential Backdraft

Dark gray or yellow gray


Compounds containing oxides of nitrogen give off blank smoke

Reddish brown


Heavy, rolling clouds violently twisting skyward indicate?

Extremely hot smoke from an intense fire deep in the building


Wispy smoke, usually lite in color indicates?

Fire in the incipient state


Smoke settling or hanging in low spots is known as

Cold smoke. It is found of fires in sprinklered areas or where a fire has been fully or partially extinguished


A heavy smoke condition present throughout the building with no fire visible frequently indicates?

A cellar fire. This is even more apparent the smoke is issuing from the chimney, especially during non-heating months


The use of blank at incinerator fires should be mandatory



The most common CO detectors are of the blank type

Self-contained battery operated


Carbon monoxide is colorless, odorless, and tasteless. The only way to detect it is with

A calibrated carbon monoxide meter


If you respond and find an activated CO detector, you should first ask?

Whether the occupants feel ill

Actually this step should have been taken by the dispatcher on receipt of the alarm


Most battery-powered CO units will activate either for low levels over a long time. 15 parts per million over an eight hour time frame or a 30 day timeframe depending on the detector. As well as high doses blank

100 ppm and 90 minutes to 400 ppm in 15 minutes


Battery powered CO detectors do not reset quickly. The sensor in these battery powered units is a gel that absorbs CO. It takes blank for this Gel to release the accumulated CO before it will reset

24 to 48 hours


After CO readings have dropped to an acceptable level, the building may be turned back over to the occupants. What is an acceptable level?

9 ppm for residences, 35 ppm for commercial occupancies where no one sleeps