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Flashcards in 18012018 Deck (25):
1

Field work

- Collect data > reconstruct the past
- Very important!

2

Culture context

- e.g. agriculture context
- Differences btw agriculture context & living context

3

Physical context

-

4

History of Americanist archaeology
(archaeology - more paired with natural sci, e.g. geo.)

- C: Borrowed some frm European tradition
- Much of early archaeology = “antiquarianism”
- During what has been called the “speculative period”

5

Classical

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6

Biblical

*

7

Pompeii, “Garden of the Fugitives”

- Plaster casts of victims buried by eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in AD 79

8

Objects, artifacts, black market

- Church, wealthy ppl

9

Giovanni Belzoni (1778-1823)

- An engineer whose first career was as a circus
- Removal by Belzoni of the 7.25 ton (sent by the British)
> Ramesses II statue frm Ramesses II mortuary temple in Luxor Egypt
Reportedly took 130 men, 17 days to extract (1816
> Signs on the site...

10

Contemporary impression of archaeologist

- Tomb raider Lura
- Indiana Jones
- Curious George
> Poor methodology?!

11

Thomas Jefferson (1743-1846)

- Mississippian conical mound “excavation”
- Surveyor, architect (quite a dynamic, complicated person)
- Value native ppl construction > investigation
<> New Americans —> European’s long history
- Male bones (warriors) > traumas, weapons
> Cumulative

12

Stratigraphy, strata, stratum

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13

Lewis Henry Morgan (1818-1881)

- Morgan’s cultural evolutionary stages:
Savagism - Barbarism - Civilization

14

Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley (1949)

- Ephram Squire & Edwin Davis
- Squire (surveyor) and Davis (antiquarian) maps of mounds in Ohio
- Most of these sites do not exit any more
> They interpret the sites with maps

15

C.B. Moore (1852-1936)

- Go to American southeast with his steam ship
- Load objects to his steam ship
- Many like Moore are interested in collecting objects as their own interest

16

Nels Nelson

- Promote stratigraphy
- Layering in sites: superposition: A is younger than B, B

17

Warren K. Moorehead (1866-1939)

- Work on Ohio, New England...
- “The Force”: the burial sites, give artifacts to the workers if they find them?!
- Found big objects only (e.g. gouges, celts, thin blades by pickaxe),
> Destroy the site and take away large pieces
> BUT not using screen > no fine, or tiny pieces
- Able to predict for the next burial sites > nail a lot of them
> Predictive Model: identify cultural area > look for similar evidence
> NOT concern with spatial relationship (which is much valued today)

18

A. V. Kidder & colleague Earl Morris (in the Southwest)

- Take Nelson’s concepts
- Interest not only on objects, but also reconstruct the past
- Field techniques, multidisciplinary, stratigraphy > still use today
(*Nelson + Kidder)

19

Ceramic seriation

- Organizing styles by time period

20

Artifact typology

- Organizing types of artifacts by time period

21

Caribbean ceramic typology, “simplified” by Rouse

- Plugging in things into the categories:
E.g. chican ostionoid, Elena ostionoid, Majorcan troumassoid, etc.
> Misinterpret > miss some info, diversities
> Not every thing fit perfectly into the categories
> Has to use typology very carefully
(Human culture is complicated)

22

***Walter W. Taylor (1913-1997)
(1960’s new archeology vs old archeology mentioned)

- Wrote A study of archeology in 1948
- Change the practices and theories
- Emphasized:
1) More anthropology in archaeology (i.e. ethnographic analogy)
2) Quantification of data - use statistics (how many, percentage) rather than making generalist statements based on impressions
3) Test hypotheses in scientific way - no more digging for sake of digging, rather problem oriented research - excavate to answer research questions broader in scope than simply “how old” and how many museum quality artifacts
> Have a research plan!!
4) Use specialists to help extract info frm archaeological artifacts & ecofacts
5) Study ALL REMAINS - no more biased view based on only a portion of excavated material
6) Study general cultural laws & processes

23

Lewis Binford (1931-2011)

- Champion of “processual”, or what was called the “new” archaeology

24

William Haviland

- Studied non-elite, commoner burials at Mayan site of Tikal
- Big temple (elite) vs burials (regular ppl) > different?

25

Kathleen Deagan

- Pioneer for women in archaeology.
- Studied Interaction twin indigenous ppl & Spanish on Hispaniola at the earliest European settlement in the New World